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Greeks

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Greeks

  1. 1. So what’s the big deal about the ancient Greeks (Athenians)?
  2. 2. So what’s the big deal about the ancient Greeks (Athenians)? <ul><li>Around 550-450 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pericles’ Funeral Oration </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. So what’s the big deal about the ancient Greeks (Athenians)? <ul><li>Around 550-450 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pericles’ Funeral Oration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aeschylus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophocles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euripides </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. So what’s the big deal about the ancient Greeks (Athenians)? <ul><li>Around 550-450 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pericles’ Funeral Oration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aeschylus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophocles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euripides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western philosophy – a little later (450-380 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socrates, Plato, Aristotle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Geometry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euclid, Pythagoras) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Athenian Society <ul><li>City-state in competition with other city states (not centralized Empire) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Athenian Society <ul><li>City-state in competition with other city states (not centralized Empire) </li></ul><ul><li>480 BCE beat Persians at Salamis </li></ul>
  7. 7. Battle of Salamis 480 BCE
  8. 8. Pericles’ Funeral Oration <ul><li>“each individual is interested not only in his own affairs but in the affairs of the city as well” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Athenian Society <ul><li>Scarce resources led to growth of artisan skills </li></ul>
  10. 10. Athenian Society <ul><li>Scarce resources led to growth of artisan skills </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery allowed leisure and education </li></ul>
  11. 11. Athenian Society <ul><li>Scarce resources led to growth of artisan skills </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery allowed leisure and education </li></ul><ul><li>Highly democratic for citizens therefore citizens’ wellbeing and education important </li></ul>
  12. 12. Athenian Society <ul><li>Scarce resources led to growth of artisan skills </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery allowed leisure and education </li></ul><ul><li>Highly democratic for citizens therefore citizens’ wellbeing and education important </li></ul><ul><li>Education valued intellect and common body of knowledge </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dionysus to Drama <ul><li>orgiastic riots (priests wearing skin of sacrificed goat) – ecstasy (cathartic?), cf speaking in tongues (god enters person) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dionysus to Drama <ul><li>dithyrambs (50 person chorus singing and dancing) -- hymns of praise to Dionysus </li></ul>
  15. 15. Dionysus to Drama <ul><li>dithyrambs (50 person chorus singing and dancing) -- hymns of praise to Dionysus </li></ul><ul><li>turned into plays of gods and heroes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dionysus to Drama <ul><li>dithyrambs (50 person chorus singing and dancing) -- hymns of praise to Dionysus </li></ul><ul><li>turned into plays of gods and heroes </li></ul><ul><li>Festival called Dionysia became a competition between states of their performances </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Festival of Dionysia <ul><li>Day 1 & 2 - formal dithyrambs in competition </li></ul><ul><li>Day 3 – satirical comedies (obscene) </li></ul><ul><li>Days 4-6 – tragedies (tragoidoi – goat song) </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedians entered tetralogy (3 tragedies and satyr – erotic satirical romp) </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Chorus <ul><li>Dithyrambs became a chorus </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus in 2 sections each side of orchestra, speaking alternately ( strophe, antistrophe ) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-professionals in chorus </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus makes emotional bridge ‘tween actors and audience; represents the audience in a way, so audience is part of action </li></ul>
  19. 19. Development of the Drama <ul><li>playwright Arion gave Chorus a leader, exarchos (one from the crowd) – asked questions of Chorus </li></ul>
  20. 20. Development of the Drama <ul><li>Thespis (6 th century BCE) – non-Chorus member, hypocrites (answerer) to answer Chorus and leader’s questions; became actor (thespian) who impersonated characters in story (hypocrite assumes characteristics not own – cf liar, our own performances) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Development of the Drama <ul><li>Actors (always men) used masks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( personae : a thing through which sound comes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help show characters being played (old man, young girl, etc) cf Noh plays and Kabuki – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can’t see faces at distance (14,000 spectators) therefore voice and gesture important (words and action in theater) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>masks had brass mouthpieces to project voice </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Development of the Drama <ul><li>Aeschylus provided 2nd actor – with 2 actors, you have a relationship (conflict or not) rather than the reciting of narrative; turns story into drama as we enact a relationship </li></ul>
  23. 23. Development of the Drama <ul><li>Sophocles provided 3rd actor – action took precedence over Chorus </li></ul>
  24. 24. Development of the Drama <ul><li>playwright Arion gave Chorus a leader, exarchos (one from the crowd) – asked questions of Chorus </li></ul><ul><li>Thespis (6BCE) – non-Chorus member, hypocrites (answerer) to answer Chorus and leader’s questions; became actor (thespian) who impersonated characters in story </li></ul><ul><li>Actor (always men) used masks to help show characters being played </li></ul><ul><li>Aeschylus provided 2nd actor – with 2 actors, you have a relationship (conflict or not) rather than the reciting of narrative; turns story into drama as we enact a relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Sophocles provided 3rd actor – action took precedence over Chorus </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Theater
  26. 27. The Theater <ul><li>Seating: theatron (theater) </li></ul><ul><li>Circular dance area for Chorus: orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Altar of Dionysus (behind altar squatted prompter, seats for priests facing altar) </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent set representing palace, etc: skene (scenery) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>actors entered through doors in skene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platform for acting in front of skene: proskenion (proscenium) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outsiders could enter from side </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechane (deus ex machina) </li></ul>
  27. 28. The Audience <ul><li>Dionysia – very important festival </li></ul><ul><li>Honors for foreign dignitaries given here; children of those who died in battle paraded here (cared for by state); tribute money presented here. </li></ul><ul><li>Prizes awarded to best plays; 10 judges, elected by lot, chose winners </li></ul><ul><li>Audience knows the stories (aids surprise if vary the tale or dramatic irony when audience knows what characters don’t) </li></ul>
  28. 29. The Plays <ul><li>In thriving democracy, audience questioned its values, especially the gods; drama responded to these questions </li></ul><ul><li>Comedies were scathing contemporary satires </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedies addressed contemporary themes but from the perspective of myth Pre-city mythical tales set against background of the city (explored the notions of individual but also of citizen ); chorus reminds us of the community </li></ul>
  29. 30. The Values <ul><ul><li>The Individual (individualism) – human actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The City (social codes and civic laws) – the chorus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Gods (absolute moral codes) – the gods </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Sophocles

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