Leo Pahkin | Financovanie vzdelávania vo Fínsku (2013)


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TREND v spolupráci s portálom Nové školstvo a s finančnou podporou spoločnosti Orange organizovali dňa 17. januára 2013 v Bratislave verejnú prednášku Leo Pahkina z Fínskej národnej rady pro vzdelávanie. Viac nájdete na www.noveskolstvo.sk

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Leo Pahkin | Financovanie vzdelávania vo Fínsku (2013)

  1. 1. Education in Finland Institutional infrastructure and financingFor education and learning
  2. 2. Finland known as… 2For education and learning
  3. 3. Finland at a glance Independent since 1917, member of the European Union since 1995 - Total area 338,000 km2, Population 5.4 million (17 inhabitants / km2) (Annual growth rate 0,3 %) - Two official languages: Finnish 92 %, Swedish 5,4 %, (Saami 0,03%) - Religion: Lutheran (78 %), orthodox (1 %) -74,6 % of population (aged 25 to 64) have completed upper secondary or tertiary education. 33,2 % have university or other tertiary qualifications -Immigrants: 3,4 % of population -Main exports: electronics, metal and engineering, forest industry -Average monthly earning: 3111 € (2776 € median) (2011). -6,8 % of GDP goes to education 3For education and learning
  4. 4. Content 1. Main features 2. Administration 3. Funding system 4. Evaluation 5. ConclusionsFor education and learning
  5. 5. Comparison of Finnish education policy to the global education movements (Hargreaves, Earl, Shawn & Manning, 2001, Sahlberg, 2004)Global Education Reform Movement Education development in FinlandStandardization Flexibility and diversityStandards for schools, teachers and School-based curriculum development,students to improve the quality of networking through steering by informationoutcomes and support.Literacy and numeracy Broad knowledgeBasic knowledge and skills in reading, Focus on broad learning; equal value to allwriting, mathematics and science aspects of individual’s growth in(= prime targets of education reform). personality, moral, creativity, knowledge and skills.Consequential accountability Trust through professionalismThe school performance is closely tied to Culture of trust that values teachers’ andthe “inspection” and ultimately headmasters’ professionalism in judgingrewarding or punishing schools and what is best for students and in reporting onteachers. progress of their learning. For education and learning
  6. 6. Education in FinlandFor education and learning
  7. 7. Main Features of The Finnish School system Equal opportunities for education irrespective of domicile, sex, economic situation or mother tongue Regional accessibility of education No separation of sexes Education totally free of charge Comprehensive, non-selective basic education Supportive and flexible administration – centralized steering of the whole, local implementation Individual support for learning and welfare of pupils Development-oriented evaluation and pupil assessment – no testing, no ranking lists 7For education and learning
  8. 8. Development of School System in Finland 1970- Expansion Rising Integration … 1970 1980 1990 2000 … Comprehensive School - Parallel education Frame system for Unification of comprehensive system ends lesson hours school Framework Curriculum Course system to the Non-graded system to the Senior Senior Secondary Secondary school schools Decentralization 8For education and learning
  9. 9. ”The Limits” of the education 100 % Proff. Jarkko Hautamäki University of Helsinki ? Skills 100 % Age group 9For education and learning
  10. 10. 1968 : 9-year basic education Early to judge individual capacities at the age 11 or 12 Losing the reserve of human resources Poor country and industry needed up-to-date more and more private schools being founded Increasing demand of equal education for allFor education and learning
  11. 11. 1985 : Decentralization Grouping by ability abolished Eligibility for furher studies became open to everyone Extra resources for schools Freedom for schools to flexible grouping of pupils New national curricular guidelines More freedom for municipalities to organize their administrationFor education and learning
  12. 12. 1994: “Let us allow education change more in line with the conditions of people, according to their skills and knowledge, than in line with the condition of the system” Vilho Hirvi (GD of FNBE) Framework curriculum Main target and main content in 120 pages Central approval procedures of textbooks abolished Decisions on text books and other materials to schools Systematic national evaluation of learning outcomes began Close co-operation between administration, teachers, their union and associatesFor education and learning
  13. 13. Content 1. Main features 2. Administration 3. Funding system 4. Evaluation 5. ConclusionsFor education and learning
  14. 14. Education and society Education Labour market market Population Educational Working life •Belief to education policy •Changes in •Career and Education Working force economics and education as a demand Education supply professions capital system •Mobility •Social rise •Flexibility •Regional •Knowledge development Schools and intensiveness •General curriculum •Social shared improvement of Education Labour knowledge education level supply Learning demand •From qualification process towards competence Politics and international influence Source: Timo Kekkonen, Confederation of Finnish IndustriesFor education and learning
  15. 15. Education and Research plan Social and cultural change Government Government Programme strategy Demographic and labour developments Education and research plan Society (MoE) 5 yrs Arrangements 1-3 yrsDevelopment inlabour demand Education system Universities NBE Polytechnics Provincial councils Evaluation board Administration Financing and Steering Regional Teachers development Etc. Globalisation and internationalisation 15For education and learning
  16. 16. Administration of basic and upper secondary education in Finland President of the Republic Parliament GOVERNMENT Education Evaluation Other Ministries Council Ministry of Education National Board Local Authorities and Joint Municipal Authorities of Education Schools and other Educational Institutions State Regional Center for International Administration Private Education Providers Mobility, CIMO Schools and other Educational Institutions Matriculation Examination State-maintained Educational Board InstitutionsFor education and learning
  17. 17. Administration in education State: State regional administration:  time allocation  evaluation  core curricula  regional cooperation  funding (42 %) Education providers/Municipalities:  national  basic, upper secondary & evaluations polytechnic education Independent legal entities:  allocation of funding  universities  local/school level curricula  evaluationFor education and learning
  18. 18. Steering System of The Education School Acts and Decrees General objectives and distribution of lesson hours National Core Curriculum Teacher Local Curriculum Matriculation Teaching and Education (Providers of examination learning(Universities) education) materials (Publishing companies) 18For education and learning
  19. 19. Municipalities as organizers of education Administration Data Collection •Politicians •Students amounts •Civil servant •Teachers, students’ choices, etc. •Organisation •reviews Funding Evaluation •Levy (tax), a political decision of tax rate •External •State subsidy •Selfevaluation •Other sources Obligations for the municipality Development •Projects •Education •Plans •Healtcare •Infrastructure etc. Regulation Employer •Teachers and other staff •Laws, degrees and norms •Service agreements •Instructions •RecommendationsFor education and learning
  20. 20. School autonomy Curriculum – National Core Curricula by NBE – Guidelines by the municipality – local orientation – School-based curriculum Annual work plan and budget, recruitment of teachers and staff Decisions on group forming, daily work rhythm and other practices Profiling of schools by contents Text books and other materials – Central approval procedures abolished 1993 – Decisions on school level Pedagogical autonomy of teachers Voluntary participation in national development programsFor education and learning
  21. 21. Content 1. Main features 2. Administration 3. Funding system 4. Evaluation 5. ConclusionsFor education and learning
  22. 22. Funding system of education Who will pay this? Local authorities cover Funding by unit 58% of TOTAL price expenditure within this system (constant share per inhabitant) Joint Private Local authorities municipal providers authorities Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools 22For education and learning
  23. 23. Government transfer system - Unit price (Basic education) Ministry of Finance • 7300,49 €/6-15 –years old inhabitant/year (2012) • Based on year 2009 real costs Each provider (municipalities) has it’s own unit price, in which is taken into consideration: • population density of the municipality • insular population • number of Swedish speaking/bilingual/foreign language pupils • Ratio of 13-15 years old pupils (7-9 grades) Private provider’s unit price is 90 % of the home municipality 23For education and learning
  24. 24. Government transfer system - Unit price (Upper secondary education) Ministry of Education, Culture and Science • 6704,40 €/student/year (2012) • Based on year 2009 real costs Each provider has it’s own unit price, in which is taken into consideration: • School size (number of students) • Special tasks • Boarding school 24For education and learning
  25. 25. Government transfer system - Unit price (Vocational education) Ministry of Education, Culture and Science • 11131,17 €/student/year (2012) • Based on year 2009 real costs Each vocational sector has it’s own unit price 25For education and learning
  26. 26. Some examples about the costs per pupil (2003) The big cities Pori Opetus Instruction Tampere Accomotion Majoitus Jyväskylä and ja transportation kuljetus Turku Oppilas- Meals ruokailu Vantaa Muu Other services for Kuopio oppilas- pupils huolto Lahti Sisäinen Adminis- hallinto tration Oulu Kiinteistöt Buildings Espoo Helsinki Pienet Small hankkeet projects 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 Euros/pupil 26For education and learning
  27. 27. Calculated funding and real costs per pupil in basic education 2003 12000 Balanced line of calculated funding and real costs 10000 Calculated funding 8000 6000 4000 2000 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Real costs 27For education and learning
  28. 28. Content 1. Main features 2. Administration 3. Funding system 4. Evaluation 5. ConclusionsFor education and learning
  29. 29. Systematic National Evaluation Instead of final exams Sample based Evaluation program guarantees that every school will take part in certain time For basement of decisions of administration Development oriented evaluation 29For education and learning
  30. 30. Advantages: • Easier (cheaper) to organize than final exams • Not too heavy for schools (not every year and not for every grade, not for testing) • In addition we get information of aspects such attitudes and working methods • Every involving schools will have analysis of their performance • No ranking of schools and teachers Disadvantages: • Variation of assessment • Need of statistical tools (reliability?) 30For education and learning
  31. 31. Sample based evaluation Two-step sample 1st step: Language, province, EU- regional programme, Municipality type 2nd step: School size (systematic sampling) Usually 6 – 10 % of the relevant age group 31For education and learning
  32. 32. Example of sample PROVINCE FINLAND SAMPLE Quantity Ratio(%) Quantity Ratio(%) South Finland 243 34 48 33 West Finland 252 35 52 36 East Finland 90 13 19 13 Oulu 73 10 16 11 Lapland 46 6 9 6 Åland Islands 9 1 0 0 Total 713 100 144 100 32 Source: Mathematics in basic education at 9th grade ; 2004For education and learning
  33. 33. Example from mathematics Three-part test: • multiple choice, mental arithmetic and problem- solving tasks In addition, pupils filled in a questionnaire investigating aspects such as attitudes and working methods. Also background information relating to instruction is collected from principals and teachers. 33For education and learning
  34. 34. Content 1. Main features 2. Administration 3. Funding system 4. Evaluation 5. ConclusionsFor education and learning
  35. 35. Conclusions from the Finnish education system development Making a profound change in education requires strategic objectives, time and patience Empowering of the teaching profession produces good results A supportive ethos of education is essential High standards for all encourage and enable students to do their best Education policy and education practices are never at their peakFor education and learning
  36. 36. Links: www.oph.fi/english www.minedu.fi 36For education and learning
  37. 37. Thank you! 37For education and learning