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EU History, institutions and budget-Poster session

The 1st Poster session about the EU history, institutions and budget was held the 10th of October 2013. Professors and students from “The economics of Spain and the EU” module in Economics and Business faculty, Oviedo University (Spain) discussed about several topics the students had prepared and presented through posters. In this ppt all the posters presented can be consulted.

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EU History, institutions and budget-Poster session

  1. 1. Poster session European Union History, institutions and Budget 10th of October 2013
  2. 2. Misunderstood theoretical perspective firstly supported by Victor Hugo, Richard Coudenhove Kalergi and Aristide Briand. “United States of Europe” Complex mix of institutions, structures and procedures. Independent entities come together to form a new whole (a union). Preservation and promotion of their particular cultures, interests, identities and sense of self-definition. Importance of democracy. Focuses strongly on „high politics‟, major issues of violence and political order. International state integration‟s theory by Stanley Hoffman. Governments control the level and speed of state integration. Power decisions are driven by national governments. Supranational organizations ≠ national governments. Integration is often based on the domestic political and economic issues of the day. Any kind of cooperation should be agreed by all countries. „Liberal Intergovernmentalism‟ Although many countries are in favor of this position about European integration and in some ways they try to follow it, The European Union are currently not given much importance to this position. Council of Ministers Purely intergovernmental body the Commission, the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice Supranational mode of decision-making Intergovernamentalism focused on Sets of inter-state bargains The decision-making of the Council of Ministers. The role of the Commission, European Parliament, or societal actors.
  3. 3. Why was the Single Market Programme necessary? What was the main aim? What is the Single Market? Design of the Single Market Programme reinforced the four freedoms identified in the Treaty of Rome: free movement of goods, services, people and capital. The Single Market allows people and business to move and trade feely across borders within the EU. The programme followed the EU’s adoption of the Single European Act in 1986. Why was it needed? Designed to overcome inhibitors of free trade between EU members. Achieve economic growth through free markets by challenging protectionist behaviours. What were the key steps taken in the programme? • • • • What have been the main effects so far? • • Goods trade liberalisation Streaming or elimination of border formalities Remove capital controls Harmonisation of technical standards in production, packaging and marketing • Increased competition between companies in manufacturing & services. Greater mobility between citizens of member states. Greater attractiveness to investment (foreign direct investment). Increased employment opportunities across businesses which span the EU.
  4. 4. QUALIFIED MAJORITY VOTING The European Council has two decision rules UNANIMITY Most important issues main QMV About 80 % of the decisions •Created with the Nice Treaty. •Based on a new weightening of votes and a “demographic net” clause. •The number of votes of each country is weighted •With Lisbon treaty:dual majority NICE TREATY LISBON TREATY Qualified majority voting (current) Dual majority voting (1st-Oct-2014) •At least 14 states •Majority of countries 55% •At least of the voting weights •Majority of populaton 65% •At least 62% of population represented by the states in favour Blocking Minority requires 4 countries It is vitally important in a nation in which unanimity is almost imposible to attain .
  5. 5. SPENDINGS ± € 120 billion RECEIPTS The EU budget F A vast array of activities, from rural I development and enviromental protecting N external borders and promoting human rights EU members (GNP) A Money left from previous N years C Tariff revenue – CET E Agriculture levies S VAT(Value Aded tax) GNP(Gross National Product) Commission, Council, Parliament all have a say in how big the budget is and how it is allocated. The commission & EU are responsible for the actual spending These aids had benefited those countries with a bigger agricultural sector and those which have economies based on their secondary sector. They’ ll probably have to make some changes in their economic structure in the future
  6. 6. Location Aim Members Presidence Decisionmaking Brussels Brussels Brussels Pass European laws, coordinate the general Member States’ economic policies, conclude international agreements, contribute to approve the EU’s budget jointly with the European Parliament Provides broad guidelines for EU policy and trashes out the final compromises necessary to conclude the most sensitive aspects of EU business, including reforms of the major EU policies, budget plans, treaty changes… Propose legislation to the Council and Parliament, administer and implement EU policies, provide surveillance and enforcement of EU law in coordination with the EU Court, manage EU budget, represents the EU at international negotiations One EU Member State holds the presidency every six months. Sets EU basic agenda and chairs all Council of Ministers meetings (except FASP ones). 1 commissioner from each Member State: Each is in charge of an area of UE policy. (choose by their national governments) + president+ 2 vice-presidents. They all serve for five years. One representative from each EU Member State authorized to commit their governments to Council Decisions Now: Herman Van Rompuy (Lithuania) + three nation group. Rotating every 6 months, one EU Member State Most important issues (20%) -> unanimously. Most issues (80%) -> majority voting called ‘qualified majority voting’ Evolution The European Council and The Council were separated because of the Lisbon Treaty. It was created as an informal foro of debate for presidents * Other ideas *The difference with the Council is that the European Council is the meeting of the ‘bosses’ of the Council members rather than relevant Ministers. Now: Dalia Grybauskaitė (Lituania) One representative from each EU member. They represent their governments. Two main decision-making rules as in The European Council Now: Jose Manuel Barroso. Simple majority. Almost all decisions on the basis of consensus The 1º Council appeared in the ECSC as "Special Council of Ministers” with limited powers on issues related with steel and coal. With the Lisbon treaty, European Council and Council were separated. This institution was formed by the ECSC, the EEC and the EAEC (Euratom). Thanks to the fusion Treaty, they were converted in only one institution “Commission of the European Communities ", but with the Maastricht Treaty it was called as we today know it *EU’s main decision-making body. It uses different names according to the matters being discussed (Agricultural Council) *The commission as a whole must be approved by the EP. Strasbourg, but also in Luxembourg (Parliament’s secretariat) and Brussels Sharing legislative powers with the Council and the Commission. Overseeing all EU institutions, specially the Commission About 750 members are directly elected by EU citizens every 5 years. MEPs represent their local constituencies Martin Schulz (Germany). Elected by majority voting, and they chaired 2 years and a half Primary democratic control over the EU’s activities. European Parliamentary elections are sometimes influenced by pure national concerns; voters express disapproval or approval of the ruling national government’s performance Elected every 5 years since 1979. But the turnout at EP elections has fallen consecutively since that date. Until 1979, the members of EP were the members of national parliaments *Parliament’s geographic dispersion is not effective, time and money are wasted Luxembourg EU laws and decisions have many interpretations so its aim is to settle disputes between Member States, EU, EU Institutions and between individuals. One judge from each MS (for 6 years). Also 8 ‘advocates-general’ help judges by constructing ‘reasoned-sumissions’. Now: Vassilios Skouris (Greece, 2003). The Judges of the Court elect the President of the Court from among their number for a three years. Mayority voting As the Lisbon Treaty extended the Court’s authority over many issues so now the Council has many sub-courts. *- Highest authority on the application of EU law. - Define relationships between the MS and EU. - Create protections for individuals
  7. 7. Do democracy and jurisdictional competition favour centralisation or decentralisation of decision making? Decentralisation: • is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority • Fayol: "Everything that goes to increase the importance of the subordinate's role is called decentralisation." - Democracy form of government in which people choose leaders by voting a country ruled by democracy an organization or situation in which everyone is treated equally and has equal rights enables consideration diversity of preferencies - impedes the abuse of power - Citizens need decentralized opportunities for access to decision-making Jorge Carretero Fernandez Natalia Bone Iglesias Lisa Jurdens Centralisation: • is the concentration of formal authority at the top levels of an organization • in a centralized organization, knowledge, information and ideas are concentrated at the top and decisions are cascaded down the organization. Jurisdictional Competition Voters can influence government in two ways: • Exit: move between countries, leave the region • Voting for other parties Decentralisation favours competition among public institutions of different countries - mobility of capital among jurisdictions limits governments interference Decentralisation
  8. 8. WHAT IS THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN PREFERENCES, INFORMATIONS AND ECONOMIES OF SCALE LOCALIZED CENTRALIZED Preferences&Informations “small issues” Economies of Scale “complicated issues” Related to problems that are not as important within all the countries of the EU. How to agree about a controversial issue? Such as problems related to adjustments in trade or impossing a tax, given that some countries would be benefited and other will not Cantera González, Raquel Namari, Giorgio Villa Velasco, Patricia
  9. 9. Principle of subsidiarity Aims to determine the level of intervention that is most relevant in the areas of competences showed between the EU and Member States This principle is fundamental to the functioning of the European Union, and more specifically to “European Decision Making”. It determines when the EU is competent to legislate, and contributes to the citizens  Arnaldo Arnaldo, María  González Gutiérrez, Lidia Principle of proportionality Regulates the exercise of powers by the European Union. It seeks to set actions taken by the institutions of the Union within specified bounds. Under this rule, the involvement of the institutions must be limited to what is necessary to achieve the objectives of the Treaties. Art. 5 TREATY OF LISBON  Hormías García, Judit  Sierra Hernández, Ana Mercedes

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