THE STATE OF COMPOSTING IN ITALY
20th Annual National Composting Conference
September 22-24, 2010
Ottawa, Ontario
Christia...
2
Presentation Outline
• General figures about composting and residential food
waste collections in Italy
• How it works (...
3
Collecting organic waste in Europe:
main legal drivers
1. The revised WFD1
requires Member States to:
• Take measures to...
4
Collecting organic waste in Europe:
main legal drivers
1. The revised WFD1
requires Member States to:
• Take measures to...
5
Composting in italy
Separate collection: trend 2004 - 2008
Metrictonnes*1,000
Organics Plastics MetalsGlassPaper Wood EE...
6
Composting in italy
Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009
Composting of source separated feedstocks in 2008
Potential Treate...
7
Composting in italy
Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009
Composting 2003 - 2008
Tonnes
North Center South Italy
8
Composting in italy
Composting facilities in 2008
approx 100 facilities above 10.000 tpa
Source: CIC (Italian Composting...
9
Composting in italy
Pinerolo (near Turin)
10
Composting in italy
Este (near Venice)
11
Composting in italy
Bassano (near Padova)
12
Type of feedstocks composted or digested in 2008
Other feedstocks
Biosolids
Yard waste
Food Waste
Composting in italy
S...
13
Type of feedstocks 2003 - 2008
Other feedstocksBiosolidsYard wasteFood Waste
Composting in italy
Source: ISPRA – Waste ...
14
Source: CIC 2010 (Italian Composting
Council)
Numberofmunicipalities
1994 2001 2005 2006 2007 2008
Evolution of SSO pro...
15
SSO programs in Italy
Italy
Canada
Kitchen
bin
Outdoor
bin
How does the collection system work?
16
Kitchen bin Outdoor bins
How does the collection system work?
30 to 40 lt (8 to 10
US gallon) for
single households
120...
17
→High breathability & water dissipation
→Reduced fermentation & generation of
odours
→Clean & hygienic
→Reduced yuck fa...
18
Vented kitchen bins
SSO programs in italy
19
Food waste collection frequency: two times a week
Residual waste: collected every two weeks or less
SSO programs in ita...
20
Smaller bins = quick manual tipping and faster collection
(up to 2.5 times compared to wheeled carts)
SSO programs in i...
21
• Small collection vehicles of 4 to 7 m3
(5 to 9 yd³)
• Quick transfers between collection points
• No compaction requi...
22
1. Capture & diversion from
residual waste
SSO programs in italy
Key Success Factors:
2. Purity of the collected feedst...
23
Captures per inhabitant in 2008
Kg/inhab.*Year
Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009
SSO programs in italy
Captures and Div...
24
MSW composition
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
1
%inweight
Resto RU
Organico
Other fractions
Organics
Capt...
25
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
Two main factors:
1. Bring systems Vs Fetch systems (curbside)
26
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
Two main factors:
2. Type of bags used
27
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
< 5% contaminants
between 5% and 10%
between 10% and 15%
1036 ...
28
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
1036 analyses in 14 facilities and 42 provinces (december 2008...
29
PE bags 30%
Plastic
packaging 30%
Other plastics
15% Metals 5%
Other (nappies)
20%
Purity of the collected food waste
S...
30
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
31
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
32
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
33
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
34
Source: ETRA SpA
Contamination(%inweight)
Year
Waste analyses in Bassano del Grappa
SSO programs in italy
Purity of the...
35
Purity of the collected food waste
SSO programs in italy
Residuesatfacility%
Source: ARPA Veneto 2007, Environmental Pr...
36
• Recent study (March 2010) from the Region of Lombardy
• Total 9.000.000 inhabitants
• 1546 Municipalities including M...
37
Modello di raccolta
Cassonetti
Porta a porta
37
Road containers
Curbside
Collection scheme
Economics
SSO programs in it...
38
Curbside
ISSO
scheme
Road
containers
Avg. %
recycling
rate
53,2 % 30,5 %
Overall
waste
araisings per
capita
(kg/year)
3...
39
Curbside
ISSO
scheme
Road
containers
Avg. %
recycling
rate
53,2 % 30,5 %
Overall
waste
araisings per
capita
(kg/year)
3...
40
% Diversion rate Vs. collection and treatment costs
€ 0
€ 10
€ 20
€ 30
€ 40
€ 50
€ 60
€ 70
€ 80
€ 90
<20% (20%;30%](30%...
41
Perspectives
• Growth of AD due to public incentives (5 mln tons
capacity are expected in 2020)
• Increasing plant size...
42
About Novamont and MaterBi resin
Novara: R&D and Headq.
Terni: Production
Italian company est.1989
European Inventor of...
43
Renewable
resources
Sustainable tailor
made applications
Solutions to specific
issues in the end of life
Technologies w...
44
• Systemic vision & approach (compostability as a solution
to specific end of life issues)
• Supporting the development...
45
Thank You
Christian Garaffa
christian.garaffa@novamont.com
+39 0321 699 693
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State of composting in italy - Christian Garaffa

  1. 1. THE STATE OF COMPOSTING IN ITALY 20th Annual National Composting Conference September 22-24, 2010 Ottawa, Ontario Christian Garaffa – Novamont S.p.A.
  2. 2. 2 Presentation Outline • General figures about composting and residential food waste collections in Italy • How it works (bins, vehicles, frequencies…) • Captures & purity • Financial aspects • A few words about Novamont
  3. 3. 3 Collecting organic waste in Europe: main legal drivers 1. The revised WFD1 requires Member States to: • Take measures to encourage the separate collection of biowaste for composting and AD. • Recycle 50% of all waste from households by 2020 1. The Landfill Directive2 requires Member States to: • Divert from landfill 65% of biowaste by 2016 • Pretreat all waste before landfilling 1 Directive 2008/98/EC 2 Directive 99/31/EC
  4. 4. 4 Collecting organic waste in Europe: main legal drivers 1. The revised WFD1 requires Member States to: • Take measures to encourage the separate collection of biowaste for composting and AD. • Recycle 50% of all waste from households by 2020 1. The Landfill Directive2 requires Member States to: • Divert from landfill 65% of biowaste by 2016 • Pretreat all waste before landfilling 1. Italian Legislation3 requires to: source segregate 65% of all MSW by the end of 2012 1 Directive 2008/98/EC 2 Directive 99/31/EC 3 D.Lgs 152/2006
  5. 5. 5 Composting in italy Separate collection: trend 2004 - 2008 Metrictonnes*1,000 Organics Plastics MetalsGlassPaper Wood EEW Bulky waste Textiles Hazardous h.h. waste Other Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009
  6. 6. 6 Composting in italy Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009 Composting of source separated feedstocks in 2008 Potential Treated (residential) Treated (other) Tonnes North Center South Italy
  7. 7. 7 Composting in italy Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009 Composting 2003 - 2008 Tonnes North Center South Italy
  8. 8. 8 Composting in italy Composting facilities in 2008 approx 100 facilities above 10.000 tpa Source: CIC (Italian Composting Consortium)
  9. 9. 9 Composting in italy Pinerolo (near Turin)
  10. 10. 10 Composting in italy Este (near Venice)
  11. 11. 11 Composting in italy Bassano (near Padova)
  12. 12. 12 Type of feedstocks composted or digested in 2008 Other feedstocks Biosolids Yard waste Food Waste Composting in italy Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009
  13. 13. 13 Type of feedstocks 2003 - 2008 Other feedstocksBiosolidsYard wasteFood Waste Composting in italy Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009 Tonnes
  14. 14. 14 Source: CIC 2010 (Italian Composting Council) Numberofmunicipalities 1994 2001 2005 2006 2007 2008 Evolution of SSO programs In 2010: 2,000 Municipalities = 20 Million people = 35% of total population SSO programs in italy
  15. 15. 15 SSO programs in Italy Italy Canada Kitchen bin Outdoor bin How does the collection system work?
  16. 16. 16 Kitchen bin Outdoor bins How does the collection system work? 30 to 40 lt (8 to 10 US gallon) for single households 120 to 240 lt (30 to 65 US gallon) for multifamily buildings SSO programs in italy
  17. 17. 17 →High breathability & water dissipation →Reduced fermentation & generation of odours →Clean & hygienic →Reduced yuck factor, higher participation SSO programs in italy Trend towards vented kitchen bins
  18. 18. 18 Vented kitchen bins SSO programs in italy
  19. 19. 19 Food waste collection frequency: two times a week Residual waste: collected every two weeks or less SSO programs in italy
  20. 20. 20 Smaller bins = quick manual tipping and faster collection (up to 2.5 times compared to wheeled carts) SSO programs in italy
  21. 21. 21 • Small collection vehicles of 4 to 7 m3 (5 to 9 yd³) • Quick transfers between collection points • No compaction required for food waste • Cheaper capital investment & operation cost • Less consuming & gas powered SSO programs in italy
  22. 22. 22 1. Capture & diversion from residual waste SSO programs in italy Key Success Factors: 2. Purity of the collected feedstock
  23. 23. 23 Captures per inhabitant in 2008 Kg/inhab.*Year Source: ISPRA – Waste report 2009 SSO programs in italy Captures and Diversion
  24. 24. 24 MSW composition 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1 %inweight Resto RU Organico Other fractions Organics Captures and Diversion SSO programs in italy 37%37% Source: ETRA SpA Total diversion of organics = 78%Total diversion of organics = 78% Uncaptured organics =Uncaptured organics = 8% of residual waste8% of residual waste
  25. 25. 25 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy Two main factors: 1. Bring systems Vs Fetch systems (curbside)
  26. 26. 26 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy Two main factors: 2. Type of bags used
  27. 27. 27 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy < 5% contaminants between 5% and 10% between 10% and 15% 1036 analyses in 14 facilities and 42 provinces (december 2008 – july 2010) Contamination% Source: CIC, Italian Composting Council
  28. 28. 28 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy 1036 analyses in 14 facilities and 42 provinces (december 2008 – july 2010) Source: CIC, Italian Composting Council Contamination% Average Contamination % (Provinces with more than 5 analyses performed)
  29. 29. 29 PE bags 30% Plastic packaging 30% Other plastics 15% Metals 5% Other (nappies) 20% Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy 1036 analyses in 14 facilities and 42 provinces (december 2008 – july 2010) Source: CIC, Italian Composting Council Average composition of non compostable contaminants
  30. 30. 30 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy
  31. 31. 31 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy
  32. 32. 32 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy
  33. 33. 33 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy
  34. 34. 34 Source: ETRA SpA Contamination(%inweight) Year Waste analyses in Bassano del Grappa SSO programs in italy Purity of the collected food waste
  35. 35. 35 Purity of the collected food waste SSO programs in italy Residuesatfacility% Source: ARPA Veneto 2007, Environmental Protection Agency Veneto Region Compostable Compostable / PE PE only Generation of residues according to the type of bag used
  36. 36. 36 • Recent study (March 2010) from the Region of Lombardy • Total 9.000.000 inhabitants • 1546 Municipalities including Milan – About 850 with SSO curbside scheme – 300 with road containers also for organics – 250 with road containers without organics • Web based waste data collection system • Accurate survey on validated data from all municipalities Economics SSO programs in italy
  37. 37. 37 Modello di raccolta Cassonetti Porta a porta 37 Road containers Curbside Collection scheme Economics SSO programs in italy
  38. 38. 38 Curbside ISSO scheme Road containers Avg. % recycling rate 53,2 % 30,5 % Overall waste araisings per capita (kg/year) 383 424 Overall norrmalized costs € 69,31 € 74,45 Mean Mean±SD Mean±1,96*SD 30,5% 53,2% 30,5% 53,2% Road containersCurbside 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Diversion(%) 30,5% 53,2% SSO programs in italy Economics
  39. 39. 39 Curbside ISSO scheme Road containers Avg. % recycling rate 53,2 % 30,5 % Overall waste araisings per capita (kg/year) 383 424 Overall norrmalized costs € 69,31 € 74,45 Mean Mean±SD Mean±1,96*SD € 74,45 € 69,31 € 74,45 € 69,31 Road containersCurbside € 30 € 40 € 50 € 60 € 70 € 80 € 90 € 100 € 110 Overallstandardizedcosts € 74,45 € 69,31 SSO programs in italy Economics
  40. 40. 40 % Diversion rate Vs. collection and treatment costs € 0 € 10 € 20 € 30 € 40 € 50 € 60 € 70 € 80 € 90 <20% (20%;30%](30%;40%](40%;50%](50%;60%](60%;70%] >70% % Diversion rate €/equivinh.year Disposal/treatment Collection SSO programs in italy Economics
  41. 41. 41 Perspectives • Growth of AD due to public incentives (5 mln tons capacity are expected in 2020) • Increasing plant size for new facilities (50.000+ tons) • Organics collection expected to double by 2015 (from 3.5 to 7 mln tons) • Quality issues are increasingly being adressed • Supermarkets are introducing certified compostable bags to be re-used in SSO programs
  42. 42. 42 About Novamont and MaterBi resin Novara: R&D and Headq. Terni: Production Italian company est.1989 European Inventor of the year 2007
  43. 43. 43 Renewable resources Sustainable tailor made applications Solutions to specific issues in the end of life Technologies with a low environmental impact About Novamont and MaterBi resin Certified according to European and American Standards
  44. 44. 44 • Systemic vision & approach (compostability as a solution to specific end of life issues) • Supporting the development of SSO programs • Collaborating with – Local Authorities – Waste operators – Waste consultants – Retailers • Promoting synergies between private and public sector (e.g. Municipalities & Retailers) About Novamont and MaterBi resin
  45. 45. 45 Thank You Christian Garaffa christian.garaffa@novamont.com +39 0321 699 693

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