The Rest of the Story: Assessing and Specifying Environmental Product Declarations
The Rest of the Story Assessing and SpecifyingEnvironmental Product Declarations Presented by: Paul Bertram FCSI, CDT, LEED AP Kingspan: Director, Environment & Sustainability CSI Institute President email@example.com
Kingspan Insulated Panels Ltd. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CESRecords for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional registration. As such, it does notinclude content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material or construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing or dealing in anymaterial or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods and services should be directed to the program instructor. This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited.
Learning Objectives1. Learn how market influences such as LEED and other environmental and sustainability focused programs are driving the need for information on environmental impacts of a product over its life cycle.2. Summarize material environmental characteristics of a product in a way that is accessible, consistent, and ultimately comparable through Environmental Product Declarations.3. Realize the inter-relationship of Product Category Rules, Lifecycle Assessment and Environmental Product Declarations for transparency in environmental reporting.4. Explain what is not in an EPD and describe what proposed information a HPD (Health Product Declaration) includes. Learn how to evaluate and specify environmental performance requirements and EPDs in projects and where to find them.
Sustainable Design• Sustainability is the concept of meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. – Includes the informed selection of materials and products to reduce product-cycle environmental impacts, improve performance, and optimize occupant health and comfort. – Seeks to enhance and increase ecological, social, and economic values over time. Source: AIA
John Fernadez at MIT is exploring several possibilities
Sustainable Design is here to stay! 189.1 Green Codes E60 - Sustainability AIA Federal Green Guidelines
Differences between Labeled Products and a Certified EPDs? • Greenwash • All products claim to be “green” • FTC = Federal Trade Commission o Green Guidelines • Unproven Claims • Single attributes • Multi-attributes • ISO Levels of CertificationGraphic Source: Buildinggreen - Green Building Product Certifications
Certification Classifications• ISO 14021 - Self Declared Environmental Claims, 1999 (Type II labels / declarations) - single-attribute label developed by the producer;• ISO 14024 - Type I Environmental Labelling – multi-attribute label developed by a third party;• ISO 14025 - Environmental labels and declarations - Type III environmental declarations - eco-label whose awarding is based on a full life-cycle assessment – (EPD) developed by a third party
Proposed LCA LEED 2012 (V4) Credits Pilot Credit 61MR CREDIT: MATERIAL LIFE CYCLE DISCLOSURE AND ASSESSMENTOPTION 1. Assessment of Non-structural Products (1 point)• Requirements – Use a minimum of 20%, by cost – Industry Wide (Generic) EPD Third party certified Type III Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), including external verification - calculated at cost – Product Specific Declaration Products with a publically available, critically reviewed Life Cycle Assessment compliant with ISO 21930 - calculated at twice their costOPTION 2. Assessment of Structure and Enclosure – Same requirements as option 1.OPTION 3. Multi-Attribute Assessment – Use a minimum of 50%, by cost – Permanently installed non-structural products meeting at least one of the attributes below. Products may contribute toward multiple attributes listed The scope of any Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) is required to be at least cradle to gate.
Other LEED Pilot Credits that related to LCA/EPD reporting• Pilot Credit 52: MR – Material Multi-Attribute Assessment• Pilot Credit 53: Responsible Sourcing of Raw Materials – Chain of Custody on raw materials• Pilot Credit 54: Avoidance of Chemicals of Concern –• Pilot Credit 61: Material Disclosure and Assessment - EPD• Pilot Credit 62: Disclosure of Chemicals of Concern -• Pilot Credit 63: MR – Whole Building Life Cycle Assessment –EPDs may contribute to this credit- TBD•
Why LCA?• Market confusion: What is a Green Building Product? – Too many EcoLabels • How many EcoLabels does it take to make a “green” product?• Current focus on single attribute environmental product reporting – Various Green Building and labeling programs• Industry needs creditable environmental reporting• Need for established multi-attribute & process assessment with “use-phase” & benefits• Need for Scientific, 3rd Party Verified, Defendable methodology for environmental reporting• Green Building Codes and NGO’s influence
Challenges of LCA• Learning curve and research – Understanding LCA practioners, LCA tools and standards• Lack of established US based PCRs (Product Category Rules) – Necessary for comparative LCAs and EPDs (Environmental Product Declarations) – Need for established US “Program Operator” network • Emerging market – Need for US based PCR/EPD registry• Lack of building teams understanding LCA reporting and related data uncertainties• Balancing environmental LCA reporting with functional performance and compliance product evaluation
LCA as Comparable Analysis• Figure 6 - Fossil Energy results COMPARISON RESULTS The LCA results from KS IMPs and the alternative assemblies are shown for each of the impact categories calculated by Athena’s EcoCalculator. Standing seam metal roofing Single Skin with Insulated w/cavity 8" Concrete fiberglass Metal Fossil Energy insulation Block Tilt Up EIFS insulation Panel San Francisco 137.09 232.73 107.47 322.51 160.71 44.08
ISO Compliant LCA • The LCA evaluates the Cradle-to-Grave environmental impacts • Two of the locations manufacture CPL panels and their LCA results have been combined into a production weighted average. • Use phase impacts are calculated relative to different building scenarios which have been installed with IMPs. • The panels are ultimately disposed at End- of-Life (EoL) via landfill.
Product System Boundaries• Figure 1– Metal Insulated Panel System Boundary Emissions to air, water, and soil (waste)Ingredients: Metal Extraction & IMP Panel Panel End Foam Processing of Manufacture Panel Use Raw Materials Installation of Life Packaging Etc. Energy, fuels, water
What is an EPD - Environmental Product Declaration? What is an EPD?
Types of EPDs• Product Cradle to Grave• Industry Industry Industry Industry End Cradle Product Product Product Gate Gate to Gate to to Gate Gate PCR EPD to Gate Gate Processes LCA Series of Gate to Gates + Specific Product aggregated Cradle to Gate
ISO 21930 – Product Category Rules Sustainability in building construction — Environmental declaration of building products• ISO 21930:2007 provides a framework for and the basic requirements for product category rules• Type III environmental declarations for building products, as described in ISO 21930:2007• Complements ISO 14025 for EPDs of building products.
What is a PCR – Product Category Rule?Source Graphic: UL Environment
Registering EPDsSource Graphic: UL Environment
EPD Certification1st page – Program Operators Certification of the EPD according to ISO -14025
LCA Multiple and single componentsystems LCAs/EPDs› Single Component System vs. › Multi Component System Insulated metal panels LCA as a single component system includes all key elements of the assembly
Athena EcoCalculator• ASTM WK28938 – Work Item: ASTM WK28938 - New Guide for Whole Building LCA LEED• Pilot Credit Library Pilot Credit 63: MR – Whole Life Cycle Assessment
Where to find EPDs and PCRs• http://www.environdec.com/en/EPD-Search/• http://www.lcacenter.org/product-category-rule- development.aspx• http://www.life-cycle.org/?page_id=23• http://www.thegreenstandard.org/epd_systems.html• http://www.ul.com/global/eng/pages/offerings/businesse s/environment/index.jsp• http://pcr-library.edf.org.tw/index.asp• http://www.ecolabelindex.com/ecolabel/aub-zertifikat
Why EPDs and LCA are import to your project?• LCA is most transparent reporting of material environmental impacts• Additional environmental material selection considerations – Health, Safety, Welfare (HSW) in architecture is anything that relates to the structural integrity or soundness of a building or building site. (AIA)• LEED Credits• IGCC & ASHRAE 189.1 compliance
Does LEED really foster productinnovation and real materialassessment?• CSI provides guidelines for comprehensive review based on specific project requirements Advantage List of projects, owners, dates and Available information for specifiers performance to date Catalog and sample maintenance program Location, displays or samples Functional Compliance Performance Characteristics and uses Long-term costs Code compliance/standards conformance Rated capacity Comparison with competitive products Test or examinations (substantiated data) Delivery time Design rationale Environmental/Energy concerns Environmental Risk Expected useful life Assessment How product is manufactured and raw materials contained Initial Costs Installation methods and installer requirements Interface with other products Limitations The Construction Specifications Institute www.csinet.org www. .com
What is NOT included in LCAs/EPDs ISSUES are Risk & Exposure
What is an HPD – Health Product Declaration?Creating acommonsubmittal formforcommunicatinginformationabout productcontent andchemicalhazards inbuildingproducts Coming soon
Proposed LCA LEED 2012 Credit• MR CREDIT: MATERIAL INGREDIENT REPORTING Option 1. Manufacturer Declared Disclosure – Manufacturer’s Declared Disclosure – Use building products and materials with manufacturer-provided disclosure of chemical compounds that at a minimum identifies any content meeting the criteria of the Clean Production Action’s Green Screen v1.2 Benchmark 1, Avoid Chemicals of High Concern. The disclosure statement must include homogeneous materials that make up at least 99% of the material by weight. Value compliant items at half their cost. – Third Party–Certified Disclosure – Use building products and materials that both meet the disclosure requirements in Option 1 and receive third party–certification of the disclosure. Value compliant items at cost. – For product formulators – Disclose the presence of chemicals that are intentionally added, plus known residuals, in concentrations of 0.01% or greater, by mass (100 parts per million) within each of the homogeneous materials. Disclosure can be either (1) listing by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number or (2) hazard communication based on the Green Screen v1.2 Benchmark 1, Avoid Chemicals of High Concern as of May 1, 2012. – 103 What is accomplished with this credit ?
http://www.pharosproject.net/ Transparent scoring protocols for environmental and health impacts of building products FEE Based• Learn whats inside each product thanks to manufacturer participation and disclosure and independent research by the Pharos team.• See how products score on VOCs, Toxic Content, Manufacturing Toxics, Renewable Materials, Renewable Energy and Reflectance.• Evaluate and compare alternatives according to your needs or preferences.• See health hazards of material contents without leaving the product profile. Are Design Professionals qualified to make product selections based on toxicities? What are the potential liabilities?
Whole Building LCA LEED 2012 Pilot Credit 63: MR – Whole Building Life Cycle AssessmentMR CREDIT: BUILDING REUSE AND WHOLE BUILDING LIFE CYCLE ASSESMENT• Demonstrate reduced environmental impact during initial project decision making by reusing existing building resources and/or through Life Cycle Assessment. – Achieve one option according to criteria for existing building reuse and Life Cycle Assessment • OPTION 1. Historic Building Reuse • OPTION 2. Renovation of Abandoned or Blighted Building • OPTION 3. Building and Material Reuse • OPTION 4. Whole Building Life Cycle Assessment – For new construction buildings conduct a life cycle assessment of all the project’s structure and enclosure that demonstrates a minimum of 10% reduction in at least 3 of the 6 impact categories l • Option 5. Building Reuse with Additions
Tools (Listing by Life-Cycle Costing / Assessment Category)• ATHENA EcoCalculator for Assemblies• Architects, engineers and other design professionals can have instant access to instant life-cycle assessment (LCA) results for hundreds of common bui...• ATHENA Impact Estimator for Buildings• Architects, engineers and researchers can get life cycle assessment (LCA) answers about conceptual designs of new buildings or renovations to existing...• Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES)• The BEES software brings to your fingertips a powerful technique for balancing the environmental and economic performance of building products. The to...• Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC)• BLCC5 is programmed in Java with an XML file format. The users guide is part of the BLCC5 Help system. The program maintains the same basic approach ...• ECONPACK• A comprehensive economic analysis computer package incorporating economic analysis calculations, documentation and reporting capabilities.Source: http://www.wbdg.org/tools/tools_cat.php?c=3
Acronyms & Terms You NEED to Know• Sustainable Design – – Sustainability is the concept of meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (AIA)• ISO – – International Organization for Standardization• LCA – Life Cycle Assessment – Technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a products life - ISO-14040• EPD - Environmental Product Declaration – – Per ISO 14025, is quantified environmental data for a product with pre-set categories of parameters based on the ISO 14040 series of standards, but not excluding additional environmental information.• PCR – Product Category Rules - – Defines same scope, calculation rules and format for reporting LCAs in a given product category• Program Operator – – ISO 14025. standard, requires a program operator is responsible for the administration of the entire EPD program• Life Cycle Assessment - – Specific methodology that helps to quantify the impacts of products from extraction of raw materials through end of life• Cradle to Gate – – Resource extraction (cradle) to the job site• Gate to Gate – – Partial LCA looking at only one value-added process in the entire production chain• Cradle to Grave – – Resource extraction (cradle) to use phase and disposal phase (grave).• Cradle to Cradle – – Specific kind of cradle-to-grave assessment, where the end-of-life disposal step for the product is a recycling process• HPD – Health Product Declaration – (Proposed) – Common submittal form for communicating information about product content and chemical hazards in building products
LCA Outcomes• LCA - tool to measure and improve environmental impacts of products, materials and buildings. – Currently LCAs and EPDs do not address material toxicities• EPDs are how LCAs are reported• PCRs are required to allow comparable EPDs• Product environment & sustainability certifications validate specific areas of environmental performance – VOC compliance• Specify environmental performance requirements – Labels and certifications can be recognized for compliance of environmental performance requirements• There are only a few EPDs and PCRs registered in the US• Tools for Whole Building LCA are limited – http://www.wbdg.org/resources/greenproducts.php
The Rest of the Story Assessing and SpecifyingEnvironmental Product Declarations Questions Presented by: Paul Bertram FCSI, CDT, LEED APKingspan: Director, Environment & Sustainability CSI Institute President firstname.lastname@example.org