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Lord of the flies and psycology


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Lord of the flies and psycology

  1. 1.  The Robbers Cave Experiment The Stanford Prison Experiment Milgram‘s Experiment
  2. 2.  Experiment on intergroup conflict and co-operation Interdisciplinary ―psychological‖ and ―sociological‖ Test on intergroup relations
  3. 3.  Hypotheses tested:1. Individuals with no established relationships, but brought together with common goal, would produce a group structure with hierarchical statuses and roles within it.2. Two groups, with a functional relationship, came under the condition of competition, negative attitudes and hostile actions towards the out-group members would arise
  4. 4. Setting of the experiment: 24 boys of about 12 years of age Similar, settled, lower-middle class Protestant Well-adjusted psychologically Of normal physical development In the same year of schooling
  5. 5. 1st stage: In-Group Formation Individuals were selected and divided into two groups randomly Balancing the physical, mental, and social talents
  6. 6. Analysis from Lord of the Flies: Ralph and Jack created two tribes According to different strength, abilities, beliefs, and responsibilities › ―The choir belongs to you, of course. They could be army, or hunters.‖ (Golden 19)
  7. 7. Ralph’s tribe Jack’s tribeWant(s) •To be rescued •Hunt •Go back home •Fulfill own desires (eat meat) •Being protected from the beastResponsibility •Build shelters •Hunt •Protect littluns •Keep the signal fireCivilization / Civilization SavagerySavagery
  8. 8.  Promote group cohesion and cooperation Two groups worked together to fulfill the basic needs of all boys Positive attitudes with their in-group members (as they had similar thinking and beliefs)
  9. 9. 2nd stage: Friction phase Two groups were bring into competition Imply frustration in group relations Disrespect actions would occur Name-calling, razzing back and forth. And singing of derogatory songs
  10. 10. Analysis from Lord of the Flies: Ralph and Jack were competing about the belief of civilization and savagery Compete for honor, authority, and followers Jack persuaded the boys to follow him, as he could protect him from the beast Ralph and Piggy claimed that there was no beast, it was just the fear in their heart › ―I gave you food, and my hunters will protect you from the beast. Who will join my tribe?‖(Golden 166) › ―I‘m chief, because you chose me. And we were going to keep the fire going. Now you run after food – ― (Golden 166)
  11. 11.  Negative attitude towards out-group members: › Jack: being rude and name-calling towards Piggy › ―Shut up, Fatty.‖ (Golden 17) › ―His specs – use them as burning glasses!‖(Golden 40)
  12. 12. 3rd stage: Integration phase Two groups had a series of contact situations Tension would be decreased Attainment is beyond the resources and efforts of one group alone
  13. 13. Analysis from Lord of the Flies: Negative integration Jack successfully persuade most of the boys to become relatively more savage In order to eat meat, and get protection from the beast, the boys joined Jack‘s tribe
  14. 14.  Tension between the two tribes decreased, as they had common belief – savagery United Actions: Use the signal fire to roast the hunted pig › ―Piggy and Ralph, under the treat of the sky, found themselves eager to take a place in this demented but partly secure society.‖ (Golden 167) Killed Simon › ―Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood! Do him in!‖ (Golden 168) › ―There was no words, and no movements but the tearing of teeth and claws.‖ (Golden 169) Wanted to kill Ralph › ―They had smoked him out and set the island on fire.‖ (Golden 219)
  15. 15.  Even Ralph and Piggy stepped towards to become savagery Gave up the signal fire – gave up the civilized part in their heart Tension decreased Common thinking and beliefs – Savagery Not contributive, positive, and morally right
  16. 16.  Conclusion:1. Individual difference › Rise of inter-group conflict › Divide into two groups according to interests, beliefs, and abilities2. Competition between two groups › Hostile and aggressive attitudes toward the out- group3. Contact with the other group › Reduce negative attitudes toward the other group › Super-ordinate goal and united cooperative action can reduce friction between groups
  17. 17.  Degeneration and breakdown of the established rules and morals Dictate how people should behave towards each other About the amorality and darkness that inhabits the human psyche. Failure Gave an insight into human psychology and social behavior
  18. 18. Setting of the experiment: 24 physical Mental health Emotional stabilityStudents were divided into two teams › one group posing as prison guards › another group posing as prisoner 15 days long Ends at the sixth day because of the injuries and some experimenters quit the test
  19. 19. Result of the experiment: Degenerated very quickly The dark and inhuman side of human nature became apparent very quickly Suffer a wide array of humiliations and punishments at the hands of the guards Many began to show signs of mental and emotional distress › Prisoners organized a mass revolt and riot, as a protest about the conditions › One third of the guards began to show an extreme and imbedded streak of sadism
  20. 20. Same theme with Lord of the Flies: At first, the boys were not too offensive to each other Characters soon became evil and violence Forgot own beliefs (civilization) Showed their dark and savage side
  21. 21. Analysis from Lord of the Flies: Jack At first, he was not able to kill a pig Soon, became more savagery Hunting became something exciting ―Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in.‖ (Golden 75)
  22. 22.  After Jack got authority, his cruel personality showed more obviously Torture the sow he hunted ―He skewered the carcass, lifted the dead weight, and stood ready. In the silence, and standing over the dry blood, they looked suddenly furtive.‖ (Golden 150) Cruel Bloodlust
  23. 23. Analysis from Lord of the Flies: No longer respect and care about lives ―‘You want a real pig,‘ said Robert, still caressing his rump, ‗because you‘ve got to kill him.‘ ‗Use a littlun,‘ said Jack‖ (Golden 126) Selfish Self-centered
  24. 24. Analysis from Lord of the Flies: Started to destroyed the rules they set up Tended to break democratic rules Tried to make civilization thoughts to disappear ―We don‘t need the conch anymore. We know who ought to say things. It‘s time some people know they‘ve got to keep quiet and leave deciding things to the rest of us – ―(Golden 111)
  25. 25. Conclusion: Individuals‘ personalities could be swamped when they were given positions of authority Individuals‘ reactions to the specific needs of the situation rather than referring to their own internal morals or beliefs
  26. 26.  However, Believe man‘s nature at birth is good Conscience and education can enhance our goodness Allow us to become better person Only under pressure and force, we will tend to be savagery
  27. 27.  This experiment reveals the majority of people are willing to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal coincidence. Lord of the flies is a typical example of obedience to authority, the boys are willing to go to almost any length on the command.
  28. 28. Experiment: The experimenter (E) orders the teacher (T), the subject of the experiment, to give what the latter believes are painful electric shocks to a learner (L), who is actually an actor. The subject believes that for each wrong answer, the learner will receive actual electric shocks, though in reality there were no such punishments
  29. 29.  Students were separated from the subject Confederate set up a tape recorder integrated with the electro-shock generator, which played pre-recorded sounds for each shock level If the answer was incorrect, the teacher would administer a shock to the learner, with the voltage increasing in 15-volt increments for each wrong answer. If correct, the teacher would read the next word pair.
  30. 30.  When the subject attempted to quit the experiment, the experimenter would tell the subject: 1. Please continue. 2. The experiment requires that you continue. 3. It is absolutely essential that you continue. 4. You have no other choice, you must go on. 5. If the participant still want to quit after this 4 steps , they are allowed to quit Establish status and authority
  31. 31. Factors that affect obedienceStatus of Location Personal ResponsibilityPrestige of a location increases Less personal responsibility enablesobedience obedience to increasesLegitimacy of Authority Figure Status of Authority FigurePeople tend to obey others from other The uniform of the authority figure canpeople if they recognize their authority give them statusas morally right and / or legally basedPeer Support Proximity of Authority FigureThe presence of others who are seen It is easier to resist the orders from anto disobey the authority figure reduces authority figure if they are not close bythe level of obedience
  32. 32. Hypothesis: Only 0%- 3% of participant would be prepared to inflict the max voltageResult: 65% (26 of 40) of experiment participants administered the final massive 450-volt shock under experimenter‘s order
  33. 33. Result of the Experiment: Deception › the participants believed they were shocking a real person Protection of participants › participants were exposed to extremely stressful situations › potential to cause psychological harm Milgram debrief the participants fully after the experiment and also followed up after a period of time to ensure that they came to no harm
  34. 34. Analysis from Lord of the Flies:1. During the feast , Jack sat like an idol and leader , he issued commands ―Who‘s going to join my tribe?‖ (Golden 215) Most of the boys accepted As the boys wanted meat, and protection from the beast
  35. 35. Analysis from Lord of the Flies:2. Wilfred was punished by Jack with no apparent reason , but Roger and rest of the boys of the tribe feel nothing about it ―I don‘t know. He didn‘t say. He got angry and made us tie Wilfred up. He‘s been‖— Robert giggled excitedly—―he‘s been tied for hours, waiting—‖ (Golden 229) None of the boys had courage to stand up for Wilfred Fear of authority Gave up justice
  36. 36. Analysis from Lord of the Flies:3. Roger and Jack begin to torture Sam and Eric, forcing them to submit to Jack‘s authority and join his tribe. Force the weak ones to follow them Violence action False use of authority
  37. 37. Analysis from Lord of the Flies:4. The evil tribe including Jack did not make any disagreement with the officer when he assign Ralph as the leader and in charge Under the officer, who is powerful, Jack did not have the courage to admit he took over most of the power He did not admit he persuaded others to be savagery
  38. 38. Analysis from Lord of the Flies:5. The civilized officer is part of an adult world in which violence and war go hand in hand with civilization and social order Obey the authority Do things to destroy world peace Similar to what the boys did
  39. 39. Compare novel with the experiment: The boys were fear about the beast (electronic shock) Allowed Jack to gain power (obedience) Control them and persuade them to be savagery (obey the experimenters) Boys followed, so they could get protection (not to get shocked) ―We‘re strong – we hunt! If there‘s a beast, we hunt it down! We‘ll close in and beat and beat and beat -!‖ (Golden 99)
  40. 40. Conclusion: The legal and philosophic aspects of obedience are of enormous import The extreme willingness of adults to go to almost any lengths on the command of an authority constitutes the chief finding of the study and the fact most urgently demanding explanation People with authority gets to control