Leadership as a change agent in the business world: Ma.sp.Nourhan Balian
One who creates a
new business in the
face of risk and
uncertainty for the
purpose of achieving
profit and growth by
necessary resources to
capitalize on them.
Who is the leader?
A person who rules
or guides or inspires
others, The activity
of leading, The body
of people who lead a
Coun-tries such as Nigeria. Yet
the strong links of Nigerians to
the extended family and
village throughout history
produce behavioral norms that
explain the prevalence of
favoring family and friends in
handing out government jobs
and contracts. What outsid-ers
decry as corruption among
politicians is simply the reﬂec-
tion of strong extended family
and communal values present
throughout history (Wil-son,
1996, p. 19)
‘character represents a person’s integrated
pattern of responding to three
basic life spheres or domains: what they will do
with their lives, how they will do it, and
their relations to others along the way’’
(Renshon, 1996, p. 39). Three core elements of
ambition, integrity, and relatedness. Ambition,
Renshon notes, is the domain
of initiative and action. ‘‘The basic concerns in
this domain are the capacity, desire, and
ability to invest oneself in accomplishing one’s
purposes’’ (Renshon, 1996, p. 39). Ambi-tion is
necessary for achievement and productivity, but
too much ambition—or too much
inadequately controlled—may result in
manipulative, self-serving behavior at the
expense of others, LEADERS ARE PEOPLE
WITH CHARACTER IF THEY LIKE IT OR
WHAT IS CHARACTER?
The ideas that has the biggest and the least effect on the masses
• Management vs leadership
• Big business vs. small business.
• Entrepreneur spirit of the small investor.
• Rich vs. poor. relationship in world.
• Social entrepreneurship.
• Funding the entrepreneur.
• Risk management and control .
Absolute poverty is defined according to an absolute minimum
standard, often called the ‘poverty line’. Relative poverty means that
you are poor in relation to those around you. Income poverty (‘less
than a dollar a day’, for example), means that you are poor if you
have less money than the defined poverty line for your
country. Human poverty takes into account other factors, such as life
expectancy, infant malnutrition, illiteracy and lack of food or clean
water. Basic needs definitions also go beyond money, to include all
the things that a person needs in order to survive – including
employment and participation in society.
AN UNEQUAL WORLD
Inequality is on the increase. In 1976
Switzerland was 52 times richer than
Mozambique; in 1997, it was 508 times
richer. Two hundred and fifty years ago,
the richest countries were only five times
richer than the poorest, and Europe only
twice as rich as China or India.
In 1960, the 20% of the world’s people
who live in the richest countries had 30
times the income of the poorest 20%; by
1995 it was 82 times. The world’s 225
richest people have a combined wealth of
over $1million million. Only four per cent
of this wealth – $40 billion – would be
enough for basic education and
healthcare, adequate food and safe water
and sanitation for all the world’s people.
the 15 richest have assets that exceed the
total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of
the assets of the 84 richest exceed the
GDP of China, which has 1.2 billion
More than a thousand
million people still live in
poverty, a tenth of them in
the industrialized world.
Of the 4,400 million
people in the Majority
World, nearly 60% lack
basic sanitation and more
than 30% have no access to
25% do not have adequate
20% have no access to
modern health services.
Two thousand million
women are anaemic
(including 55 million in
the industrial world).
20% of children in the
world do not attend school
to grade five.
The main challenges to the Syrian
– a lack of investments, due to
Syria's highly centralized
economy and lack of required
economic reforms. Direct foreign
investments stand at a mere 2.5
percent of GDP;
– the depleting oil reserves;
– the depleting and not always
reliable water reserves. Syria's
water supplies are used at higher
rates than their replacement, and
are affected by pollution, lack of
water management, population
growth, droughts, and Syria's
relations with its neighbours
Turkey and Iraq, with which it
shares the Euphrate
each day because of poverty
We can do some thing
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) study reports:
Men are twice as likely to start a business as women.
Most entrepreneurs turn to family members and friends for
Entrepreneurs are most likely to launch businesses when
between the ages of 25 and 44.
The World of the Entrepreneur
The opportunity to:
Create your own
Make a difference
Reach your full
Reap impressive profits
Contribute to society
be recognized for your
Do what you enjoy and
to have fun at it
Uncertainty of income
Risk of losing your
Long hours and hard
Lower quality of life
until the business gets
High levels of stress
Why Women Start
Small Business by
1. Management mistakes
2. Lack of experience
3. Poor financial control
4. Weak marketing efforts
5. Failure to develop a strategic plan
6. Uncontrolled growth
7. Poor location
8. Improper inventory control
9. Incorrect pricing
10. Inability to make the
Know your business in depth
Develop a solid business plan
Manage financial resources
Understand financial statements
Learn to manage people effectively
Set your business apart from the
Maintain a positive attitude
Avoiding the Pitfalls of
Small Business Failure
The greatest figures of all time in leadership
• Leader by the position
• Leader by personality,
• Leader by moral example
• Leader by power held
• Intellectual leader
• Leader because of ability to
Types of leaders:
I suppose leadership at one time meant muscles; but today it means getting along with people.
Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.
John F. Kennedy
It is better to lead from behind and to put others in front, especially when you celebrate victory when nice
things occur. You take the front line when there is danger. Then people will appreciate your leadership.
Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.
We can't drive our SUVs and eat as much as we want and keep our homes on 72 degrees at all times... and then
just expect that other countries are going to say OK. That's not leadership. That's not going to happen.
Leadership is solving problems. The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have
stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help or concluded you do not care. Either
case is a failure of leadership.
A group of workers and their leaders
are set a task
of clearing a road through a dense
jungle on a remote island to get to the
coast where an estuary provides
a perfect site for a port.
The leaders organise the labour into
efficient units and monitor the
distribution and use of capital assets –
progress is excellent. The leaders
continue to monitor and evaluate
progress, making adjustments along
the way to ensure the progress is
maintained and efficiency increased
Then, one day amidst all the hustle
and bustle and activity, one person
climbs up a nearby tree. The person
surveys the scene from the top of the
And shouts down to the assembled
Leadership story 2:
Who should decide, accept and implement?
1. Change strategists: leaders, visionaries, etc
2. Change implementers, agents, teams…etc
3. Change recipients: who will be affected
“ They” do the changing and “we” will tell them
how. “they” might resist or not, implementing on
people invites problems.
Forces of change