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Thesis _ A model for an adaptive e learning system based on learners' learning style diversity

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An Adaptive Learning Management System Based
on Learner’s Learning Style

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Thesis _ A model for an adaptive e learning system based on learners' learning style diversity

  1. 1. A Proposed Model of an Adaptive E-learning System Based on Learner’s Learning Styles Diversity Faculty of Informatics & Computer Science Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport M.Sc. In Information Systems Academic Supervisors: Prof. Dr. A. A. Hegazy Prof. Dr. M. Badr Senousy Submitted by Nouran M. Radwan April 2011
  2. 2. AAcckknnoowwleleddggeemmeenntt In the name of Allah, tthhee MMoosstt GGrraacciioouuss aanndd tthhee MMoosstt MMeerrcciiffuull  I would like to express my gratitude to Allah for providing me the strengths and blessings to complete this work.  Special appreciation goes to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Abdelfattah Hegazy for his supervision and constant support. I also owe Prof. Dr. M. Badr Senousy great thanks for his constructive comments and Guidance throughout the thesis works.  My Thanks to Prof. Dr. Nashet El-Khameesy and Prof. Dr.Taha el-Areef for agreeing to be 2
  3. 3. PPuubblilcicaattioionn  A. Hegazy , N. Radwan , Investigating Learner Perceptions, Preferences and Adaptation of E-Learning Services in Egypt , International Conference on Education and Management Technology, ICEMT 2010, Egypt, Cairo , November 2010 , P.167-173. 3
  4. 4. 4 Every single word, Photo, Action reflects a character and it creates an impression to every personality.
  5. 5. 5 Different people learn in different ways. This is the basis of the study of learning styles.
  6. 6. AAggeennddaa  Motivations  Problem Statement  Background and Related Work  Research Methodology  Proposed Model  Data Analysis and Interpretations  Implementation  Conclusion  Future Work 6
  7. 7. MMoottivivaattioionnss  The learning process is complex and is influenced by characteristics such as previous knowledge, learning styles, background, etc. (Herman, 2007)  These individual differences are the reason why some learners find it easy to learn in a particular course, whereas others find the same course difficult. (Graf, 2007)  In e-learning when the learning style of the learner is not compatible with the teaching style of the teacher; difficulties in academic achievement can result. (Hanan Ettaher Dagez & Khairuddin Hashim,2006) 7
  8. 8. There are many e-learning systems, but they provide only the same materials to all learners regardless of individual differences. Current existing conventional E-learning may not fit to all learners. (Herman, 2009) PPrroobblelemm S Sttaatteemmeenntt 8
  9. 9. PPrroobblelemm S Sttaatteemmeenntt  A new generation of learners has grown up with computers and the Internet. They expect to continue using them in getting an education. (Lam and Bordia, 2008)  E- Learning should be adapted to the learning style (LS) to be effective. (Graf, 2007)  Adaptive E-Learning System (AES) has the capability to adapt a course presentation to an individual’s characteristics. (Herman, 2009)  Therefore; there is a need to understand learner's learning style and e-learning preferences . 9
  10. 10. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk E-learning Challenges E-learning Challenges Individual Characteristics Course Challenges Technological Challenges Contextual Challenges Depend on: Andersson, A. ) (& Grönlund,, A.,2009 10
  11. 11. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk Learning Style Learning Style: refers to how an individual is able to learn and remember information. How do learners learn? This question has been an area of interest for instructors and researchers for many years. (James Pinto, Pin Ng, & Susan K. Williams, 2008) 11
  12. 12. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk  In 1904, Alfred Binet, a French psychologist, developed the first intelligence test, which interest in individual differences.  In 1907, Dr. Maria Montessor, a physician in Italy, began using materials to enhance the learning styles of her students.  In 1956, Benjamin Bloom developed a system known as Bloom's Taxonomy, which took another step toward defining learning-style differences.  Isabel Myers-Briggs and Katherine Briggs developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in 1962 around theories of psychologist Carl Jung. http://www.ehow.com/about_5381758_history-learning-styles.html 12
  13. 13. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk  FFuurrtthheerr aaddvvaanncceemmeenntt wwaass mmaaddee wwhheenn tthhee DDuunnnn aanndd DDuunnnn LLeeaarrnniinngg SSttyyllee MMooddeell wwaass iinnttrroodduucceedd iinn 11997766,, ggeenneerraattiinngg ddiiaaggnnoossttiicc iinnssttrruummeennttss ffoorr eevvaalluuaattiioonn.. FFrroomm tthhee 11998800ss ttoo tthhee pprreesseenntt ddaayy,, ddiiffffeerreenntt lleeaarrnniinngg--ssttyyllee mmooddeellss hhaavvee bbeeeenn ddeevveellooppeedd bbuuiillddiinngg oonn pprreevviioouuss ddiissccoovveerriieess..  IInn 11998844,, DDaavviidd KKoollbb ppuubblliisshheedd hhiiss lleeaarrnniinngg--ssttyyllee mmooddeell,, wwhheerree hhee ddeetteerrmmiinneedd tthhaatt lleeaarrnniinngg ssttyylleess aarree cclloosseellyy rreellaatteedd ttoo ccooggnniittiivvee sskkiillllss..  IInn tthhee ''9900ss,, tthhee eemmpphhaassiiss wwaass ppllaacceedd oonn hhaavviinngg tteeaacchheerrss aaddddrreessss lleeaarrnniinngg ssttyylleess iinn tthhee ccllaassssrroooomm tthhrroouugghh aaddjjuussttmmeennttss iinn ccuurrrriiccuulluumm tthhaatt iinnccoorrppoorraattee eeaacchh ssttyyllee,, ggiivviinngg aann eeqquuaall cchhaannccee ffoorr ssttuuddeennttss ttoo lleeaarrnn.. http://www.ehow.com/about_5381758_history-learning-styles.html 13
  14. 14. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk http://www.creativelearningcentre.com 15
  15. 15. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk User Model of Adaptive E-learning System (Brusilvosky,2002) 17
  16. 16. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk User Model with the Personality Type The main contribution was pointing to the role of personality in user model. One of the most findings in this research was that personality impact learning performance in .Adaptive e-learning systems (Amal Al-Dujaily,2007) MBTI Model 18 The main contribution was pointing to the role of personality in user model. One of the most findings in this research was that personality impact learning performance in .Adaptive e-learning systems
  17. 17. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk General Structure of Each Chapter in An Adaptive Course This thesis gives an indication for the effectiveness of providing adaptivity based on learning styles and shows that adaptive courses make learning easier for students. Graf et al.,2007)) Felder –Silverman Model Learning Objects Content Outlines Conclusions Examples Self-assessment tests Exercises 19 This thesis gives an indication for the effectiveness of providing adaptivity based on learning styles and shows that adaptive courses make learning easier for students.
  18. 18. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk Module for Studying of Learning Styles  Active learners learn by trying things. Reflective learners learn by thinking through things .  Sensing learners are concrete, practical. Intuitive learners are more comfortable with abstractions, innovations.  Visual learners prefer visual presentation of learning materials such as pictures, diagrams and flowcharts. Verbal learners prefer written and spoken explanations.  Sequential learners learn in incremental steps. Global learners learn in large leaps. Daniela Dureva & Georgi Tuparov ) (,2008 , Kolb’s ,Felder-Silverman , Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence .Reid Model Basic characteristics of the :module Studying of learners’ preferred e-learning technologies based on own questionnaire. Graphical and verbal visualization of determined learning style.  Personal statistics for the learner. 20  Active learners learn by trying things. Reflective learners learn by thinking through things .  Sensing learners are concrete, practical. Intuitive learners are more comfortable with abstractions, innovations.  Visual learners prefer visual presentation of learning materials such as pictures, diagrams and flowcharts. Verbal learners prefer written and spoken explanations.  Sequential learners learn in incremental steps. Global learners learn in large leaps.
  19. 19. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk learning styles in learning environment from learner’s point of view  Students should be encouraged to take the learning style test and see the results.  The planning of e-learning with respect to learning styles is complicated because every learner’s individual needs can not be taken into consideration.  Students should be encouraged to take the learning style test and see the results.  The planning of e-learning with respect to learning styles is complicated because every learner’s individual needs can not be taken into consideration. (Essi Kanninen, 2009) (VAK (Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic Model Kolb’s learning style Model 21
  20. 20. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk Learner Flowchart in Adaptive E-learning Using the Learning styles VAK and Felder- (Herman, 2009) Silverman learning style Model 22
  21. 21. BBaacckkggrroouunndd & & R Reelalatteedd W Woorrkk Adaptive Course for a Learner The proposed mechanism combines the advantages of LMS with those of adaptive learning systems by enhancing LMS with .adaptivity Graf et al., 2010)) Felder –Silverman Model Adaptive annotation Adaptive& . sorting Annotations for LOs: recommended .and standard 23 The proposed mechanism combines the advantages of LMS with those of adaptive learning systems by enhancing LMS with .adaptivity
  22. 22. RReesseeaarrcchh M Meetthhooddoolologgyy  Studying background information about E-learning and Learning Styles.  Presenting the related work on adaptive e-learning system according to learners' learning style.  Doing an analytical study to find out several patterns about e-learning preferences that fit different learning style according to MBTI Model.  Presenting a model for an adaptive e-learning system based on learner's learning style diversity.  Implementation of the proposed model using LMS called Learning Activity Management Systems (LAMS). 25
  23. 23. Research Research M Meetthhooddoolologgyy MBTI Model dimensions 26 MBTI Learning Style Model Where they focus to prefer their attention Extravert Introvert Focus outwardly. Learn best by .discussing or doing Focus inwardly. Learn best by building .mental models How to gather and process information Sensitive Intuitive Focus on the five senses and .experiences Focus on seeing patterns and connecting meaning to facts. How to organize information and make Decisions Thinker Feeler .Focus on logic, cause and effect Focus on person-centered understanding .and values How to come to a conclusion and relate to the world around Judger Perceiver .Focus on sticking to a plan Focus on adapting to demands of the situation.
  24. 24. RReesseeaarrcchh M Meetthhooddoolologgyy  Each dimension is represented by the letter in term used in MBTI theory to indicate a preference for one of the two dimensions of that dichotomy. 27
  25. 25. RReesseeaarrcchh M Meetthhooddoolologgyy Why MBTI Model  MBTI was originally developed to identify people’s personality type particularly for the education domain MBTI has been noted as an important instrument by educational psychologists.  MBTI has been used to develop a better understanding of the influences of e-learners’ performance .  MBTI has been used for developing different teaching methods for meeting different learners’ learning style. (Amal Al-Dujaily,2007) 28
  26. 26. PPrrooppoosseedd M Mooddeell Proposed Model with the Personality Type 29
  27. 27. PPrrooppoosseedd M Mooddeell Use Case Diagram for Adaptive E-learning Proposed Systems 30
  28. 28. PPrrooppoosseedd M Mooddeell Proposed Adaptation Features 31
  29. 29. Data Analysis Data Analysis a anndd I nIntteerrpprreettaattioionnss Case Study 32
  30. 30. Data Analysis Data Analysis a anndd I nIntteerrpprreettaattioionnss  An assessment was developed in the form of a test aiming to gain better knowledge of how learners prefer to learn.  The participants were 108 persons where 44 persons were male (41%) and 64 persons (59%) were female. A random sampling method was used since the participants were university students from Egypt having different specialization.  The responders were asked to respond 28 questions to discover their personality type (MBTI test) and other 12 questions about some personal information and their preferences in using e-learning. It was developed and published at kwiksurveys.com. 33
  31. 31. Data Analysis Data Analysis a anndd I nIntteerrpprreettaattioionnss Case Study Participants‘ Learning Styles 34
  32. 32. Data Analysis Data Analysis a anndd I nIntteerrpprreettaattioionnss Case Study: Learning Styles Analysis Results 35
  33. 33. Data Analysis Data Analysis a anndd I nIntteerrpprreettaattioionnss Case Study: Learning Styles Analysis Result 36
  34. 34. Data Analysis Data Analysis a anndd I nIntteerrpprreettaattioionnss Case Study Some Learning Styles Analysis Results 37
  35. 35. Data Analysis Data Analysis a anndd I nIntteerrpprreettaattioionnss Case Study: Learning Styles Analysis Results 38
  36. 36. Data Analysis Data Analysis a anndd I nIntteerrpprreettaattioionnss Driven Results from Case Study 39
  37. 37. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS 40
  38. 38. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS 42 Designing the Proposed Model in LAMS LAMS (LMS) -Personali zation Designing Model Author Learner AES Provide ) learning materials due to Learner’s Learning Styles (Diversity
  39. 39. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS The Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) is an innovative type of LMS which creates a visual ‘drag-and- drop’ authoring platform. 43
  40. 40. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Author’s View  Learner has to answer the four main sections of MBTI Test. The system then filters the learning paths for each learner according to the results of the questionnaire (Test) to present a personalized set of learning material which includes Introduction, Contents, Assignments, and Exercises. 44
  41. 41. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS  Learners can navigate through sequences similarly to working on a web page on the internet.  The Progress Bar shows you the order of activities in the LAMS sequence, as well as learner current position.  Blue circles represent activities that learner have completed, Red squares show learner current position in the sequence and Green triangles represent activities that learner not reached. Learner’s Progress bar Learner’s View 45
  42. 42. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Author’s View Learning Session includes an introduction, Contents, . Assignments, and Exercises 46 Introduction
  43. 43. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Learner’s View Example of Mindmap for Sequential Learners 47
  44. 44. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Author’s View Learning Session includes an introduction, Contents, . Assignments, and Exercises 48 Content
  45. 45. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Learner’s View Example of Extravert Resource List Content 49
  46. 46. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Learner’s View Example of Introvert Resource List Content 50
  47. 47. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Multiple Choice Questions Text Example of Judger Assignment 52 Example of Judger Assignment
  48. 48. ImImpplelemmeennttaattioionn U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Multiple Choice Questions Example of Perceiver Assignment Text Example of Perceiver Assignment 53
  49. 49. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Example of Feeler Exercise Example of Feeler Exercise Report Example of Feeler Exercise Correctness Learner’s View 54
  50. 50. Implementation Implementation U Ussiningg L LAAMMSS Example of Thinker Exercise Example of Thinker Exercise Correctness Learner’s View 55 Example of Thinker Exercise Report
  51. 51. CCoonncclulussioionn  This Thesis presented the Development and implementation of A model an adaptive e-learning system based on the learner’s learning style diversity using LMS (Learning Management System) called Learning Activity Management Systems (LAMS). 56
  52. 52. CCoonncclulussioionn  In a case study, Several patterns were found where students with different learning style showed significantly different preferences in e-learning environment. These results seem to be important in order to provide courses that include features which fit to different learning styles. 57
  53. 53. CCoonncclulussioionn  By analyzing the assessment, it was concluded that: Extravert persons prefer Synchronous and Asynchronous while Introvert persons prefer Self-Directed and asynchronous.  Thinker learners prefer Case studies and Progress Measure Tests while Feeler learners prefer Progress Measure Test and Interactive Exercises.  Judger persons prefer Clear Assignments and Little Creativity Assignments while Perceiver persons prefer Little Creativity Assignments and Skills Challenged. Intuitive prefer Holistic while Sensitive prefer Sequential E-learning approach. 58
  54. 54. CCoonncclulussioionn  The Learning Management System of LAMS provides a variety of features to support teachers in creating, administering, and managing online courses. However, that does not consider individual differences of learners. learners’ learning styles needs to be accommodated in LAMS.  The use of LAMS accelerates the development of my e-learning system design and provides enhanced capabilities and a user-friendly interface. 59
  55. 55. TThheessisis C Coonnttrribibuuttioionnss 1) The Thesis detect e-learner preferences within learning style dimensions using MBTI learning style Model. 2) The Thesis contributes how to develop e-learning materials to different learning styles and combine the advantages of learning management systems those of adaptive systems. 60
  56. 56. FFuuttuurree w woorrkk  The findings in this thesis can be used as the basis for further research and developments providing advanced adaptivity especially in Learning Management System.  Future work will deal with an in-depth analysis of the results with respect to different learning style dimensions as well as the different adaptation features.  Investigations can be performed on finding out whether there are adaptation features which have more impact than others or whether there are learning styles which can be supported in a better way. 61
  57. 57. Nouran M. Radwan radwannouran@yahoo.com Teaching Assistant Information system & Computer Science Department Sadat Academy for Management Science http://sadatacademy.edu.eg 62

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