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domestic violence and child abuse


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some things we need to know (and be aware) of violence and abuse, especially among the women and children. Then, discern about it.

**this presentation still lacks some images. had lost the folder with the samples of those pics. tsk3. i'll remake this one!

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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domestic violence and child abuse

  2. 2. psychopathology <ul><li>men who abused their wives were mentally ill and could be cured through medication or psychiatric treatment </li></ul><ul><li>perpetrators attack only their intimate partners. </li></ul><ul><li>In reality, battered women are not mentally ill, and many of those who were institutionalized were misdiagnosed because of a failure to recognize or understand the physical and psychological effects of domestic violence </li></ul>
  3. 3. Interpersonal Model <ul><li>Sullivan (1953) </li></ul><ul><li>examined interpersonal relations and the socialization process, which are important to how individuals feel about themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals as striving for security and relief from anxiety to protect their self </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biologic Model <ul><li>Selye (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>effects of stress is observed by the objective measurement of structural and clinical changes in the body. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>These responsiveness may fade if the individual is continuously exposed to the stressor </li></ul>↑ Altered function of the serotonin receptors metabolic activation; facilitates increased physical activity ↑ cortisol levels emotional blunting and physical analgesia (tolerating fear and pain associated with serious injuries) ↑ release of endogenous opiates CNS hyperarousal and hypervigilance, which facilitates rapid behavioral actions ↑ noradrenergic and dopaminergic system activity chron. anxiety, intrusive memories, fear ↑ regional epinephrine and norepinephrine turnover in the cerebral cortex and limbic system
  6. 6. <ul><li>May alter catecholamine and thyroid system= depressed immune system </li></ul><ul><li>+ deficiency in serotonin= increase risk for suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term= sensitive to subseq. stressors= reactivates anxiety-related response =negative thinking, fear, irritability, muscle tension, headaches, back pain, insomnia, GI disturbances, hypertension, palpitations, insulin resistance,, decreased immune function, increased abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>If resolved…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation response </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activation of PSNS & </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>↓ activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>NORMAL
  8. 8. Learned behavior theory <ul><li>“ men battered because they learned violence in their families as children, and women sought out abusive men because they saw their mothers being abused” </li></ul><ul><li>perpetrators are making choices about what they will or will not do to the victim, even when they are claiming they ‘lost it’ or were ‘out of control.’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Women often have very rational reasons for staying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of retaliation against themselves or their children, or they may not be able to financially support themselves or their children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ostracized by their family & community if they leave. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>they leave for short periods in order to escape the violence and to emphasize their disaffection in the hope that this will stop the violence . </li></ul>Learned helplessness theory
  10. 10. <ul><li>accompanied by a resurgence of the psychopathology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>theorists argued that women stayed i n abusive relationships because they suffered fr om a personality disorder that caused them to seek out abusive relationships as a means of self-punishment, or were addicted to abusive relationships. Many also maintained that women were co-alcoholics with their spouses and thus could be “treated” through alcohol addiction programs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>These theories were inconsistent with the fact that women had very rational reasons for staying in relationships. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Family/relationship conflict model <ul><li>“ both the man and the woman contribute to violence in an intimate relationship.” </li></ul><ul><li>either that the relationship is characterized by mutual violence, or that “in many cases a wife provokes her husband by ‘below-the-belt’ arguments prompting a violence response from her husband.” The woman’s behavior contributes to the build-up of tension in the man, until the man explodes in a violent rage, followed by a honeymoon period. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Power and Control Wheel <ul><li>describes the different tactics an abuser uses to maintain power and control over his partner. </li></ul><ul><li>exert power and control </li></ul><ul><li>batterer uses tactics to ensure the submissiveness of his partner—to ensure that he gets his way. </li></ul>
  14. 16. CHILD ABUSE
  15. 17. <ul><li>Consists of any act, or failure to act, that endangers a child’s physical or emotional health and development </li></ul><ul><li>Also sometimes called child maltreatment </li></ul>
  16. 19. Incidence <ul><li>In 2002: 896,000 American children were victims of abuse and neglect </li></ul><ul><li>60.5% suffered neglect, 18.6%-physical abuse, and 9.9%- sexual abuse </li></ul>Parents - the most common abusers * because abuse commonly occurs in the family and often involves young preverbal children, many cases are never discovered or reported.
  17. 20. <ul><li>Physical/mental hx problems </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol and drug abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Personal knowledge and problems </li></ul><ul><li>Parents were abused children before </li></ul>isolation stressss anger POVERTY domestic violence
  18. 21. Four types of child abuse: physical abuse
  19. 22. <ul><li>Shaken baby syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Munchausen by proxy syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inducing medical illness in a child or wrongly convincing others that a child is sick or both dangerous and abusive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Drug use during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>may lead to fetal alcohol syndrome </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Signs of Physical Abuse <ul><li>burns, human bite marks, cuts, bruises or welts in the shape of an object </li></ul><ul><li>Imprint burns and immersion burns </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Has resistance going home </li></ul><ul><li>Seems frightened of the parents and protests or cries when it is time to go home from school </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of adults </li></ul><ul><li>Reports injury by a parent or another adult caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Antisocial behaviors (truancy, running away form home, stealing, substance abuse) </li></ul><ul><li>Head injuries </li></ul>
  21. 24. Sexual Abuse <ul><li>Any sexual act between an adult and a child, including penetration, intercourse, incest, rape, oral sex, and sodomy </li></ul>
  22. 25. Examples (images) <ul><li>Fondling- touching or kissing a child’s genitalia, making a child fondle an adult’s genitals </li></ul><ul><li>Violations of bodily privacy- forcing a child to undress, voyeurism </li></ul><ul><li>Exposing a child to adult sexuality- performing sexual acts in front of a child, exposing genitals, telling dirty stories, showing pornography to a child </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial exploitation- sexual exploitation through a child prostitution or child pornography </li></ul>
  23. 26. Perpetrators <ul><li>Childcare professionals or babysitters </li></ul><ul><li>Clergy, teachers, or athletic coaches </li></ul><ul><li>Foster parents or host families or foreign-exchange students </li></ul>
  24. 27. Signs of sexual abuse: <ul><li>Inappropriate interest in or knowledge of sexual acts </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates bizarre, sophisticated, or unusual knowledge and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Seductiveness or promiscuity </li></ul><ul><li>Running away from home </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of things related to sexuality, or rejection of own body or genitals </li></ul><ul><li>excessive aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of particular person or family member </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty sitting or walking </li></ul>
  25. 30. Emotional Abuse <ul><li>usually present when another form of abuse is found. </li></ul><ul><li>Has more long-lasting negative psychiatric effects than either physical abuse or sexual abuse. </li></ul>
  26. 31. The trauma of being kidnapped, including kidnapping by a parent, amounts to abuse Child abduction Taking advantage of a child, including child labor Child exploitation Witnessing violent behavior, including the physical abuse of others Exposure to violence Confinement to a closet or dark room, tying to a chair for long periods of time, or terrorizing a child Extreme punishment Withdrawing attention, giving “the cold shoulder”, disregarding Ignoring or rejecting Telling the child that everything is his or her fault Habitual blaming Showing little to no physical affection (such as hugs) or words of affection (praising) Lack of affection and warmth Humiliating the child, name-calling, making negative comparisons to others. Telling the child he or she is “no good” “worthless” “bad” or “a mistake” Belittling or shaming yelling, screaming, threatening, frightening, or bullying Belittling or shaming
  27. 32. Some sign of emotional abuse (images) <ul><li>apathy, depression </li></ul><ul><li>may lead to withdrawal to anger </li></ul><ul><li>learning difficulties/ difficulty concentrating </li></ul><ul><li>nervous habits (nail biting, thumb sucking) </li></ul><ul><li>conduct disorders (hostility or antisocial) </li></ul><ul><li>shows extremes in behavior, such as overly compliant of demanding behavior, passivity or aggression </li></ul><ul><li>delayed in physical or emotional development </li></ul><ul><li>attempts suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Reports lack of attachment to the parent </li></ul>
  28. 33. Neglect <ul><li>Includes educational, physical, emotional </li></ul>
  29. 34. Consequences of Child Abuse: <ul><li>Physical and behavioral indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>injury, emotional impairment, permanent disability, anger, difficulty trusting others, increased risk of low academic achievement, Sleep disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic syndrome: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chronic pain syndromes, irritable bowel syndrome, GI disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental Health: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(post traumatic stress disorder), Anxiety, Depression, Eating disorders, Low self-esteem, Phobias </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative health behaviours: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aggressive, Attempts suicide, Adult criminality Juvenile delinquency, Drug/Alcohol abuse, Promiscuity, physical inactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproductive health: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unwanted pregnancy, STD/HIV, gynaecological disorders, insafe abortion, pregnancy complications, pelvic inflammatory diseases </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. <ul><li>REPUBLIC ACT No. 7610 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7658 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an act prohibiting the employment of children below 15 years of age in public and private undertakings. Amending for the purpose section 12, article VIII of R.A. 7610. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. To prevent child abuse and neglect <ul><li>Understand the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the terms </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the causes </li></ul><ul><li>Support programs that support families </li></ul><ul><li>Report suspected abuse and neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the word </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the awareness of our community </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready in an emergency </li></ul>
  32. 37. <ul><li>Health Workers can: </li></ul><ul><li>Educate themselves about physical, sexual abuse and explore their own biases, fears, and prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>Provide supportive, non-judgmental care to victims of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Ask clients about abuse in a friendly, gentle way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Community can: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urge understanding, compassion, and concern for victims of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Support the efforts of abused women to leave relationships that put them at risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents can: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>explain to their children the reason/s behind marital conflicts and try to resolve it </li></ul><ul><li>teach their children to respect others and themselves </li></ul><ul><li>encourage the health, safety and intellectual development of their children and help boost their self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>avoid hitting their children; use non-violent forms of discipline instead </li></ul><ul><li>talk to their children about sex, love and interpersonal relationships; emphasize that sex is consensual </li></ul>
  33. 38. <ul><li>Women and Children protection Unit, </li></ul><ul><li> Davao Medical Center, Bajada, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Tel. no.: 2221347 </li></ul><ul><li>Bathaluman Crisis Center, </li></ul><ul><li>Rivera Village, </li></ul><ul><li>Bajada, Davao City </li></ul><ul><li>Tel. no.: 2215691 </li></ul><ul><li>DSWD, Uyanguren St. D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Tel no.: 2253461, 2250911, 2271617 </li></ul>Philippine National Police Women and Children’s Desk Camp Catitipan, D.C. Tel. no.: 2349109
  34. 39. THANK YOU!!!