INTRODUCTION AGAIN YOU HAVE THREE PARTS HOOK BACKGROUND INFORMATION THESIS STATEMENT A good thesis statement both names the topic and reveals the writer’s opinion about the topic. FOR EXAMPLE; India has a lot of interesting festivals. (The statement is too broad. Even though it does state the writer’s opinion, the statement is not clear: It doesn’t explain why the festivals are interesting. Diwali is an important festival for Indians because they celebrate, remember traditional legends, and enjoy time with their families.o (The topic is specific enough, and clearly gives the writer’s opinion. In addition, it lists the supporting ideas.)
SPECIFIC VOCABULARY IN THESIS STATEMENT;For causes;use words or phrases like:Cause, reason, because, due to, since, forFor effects;use words or phrases like:Effect, affect(v), outcome (n), result, lead to, resulted in
Body paragraphs In each body paragraph, tell a reason or effect. Try to make a connection among the paragraphs by reminding the previous one. Start with a transition and topic sentence, Support with explanations, examples, details, or other information
The first reason(cause)/effect of ….. is …. The first reason(cause)/effect of ….. Is that… (S+V)BODY First,…1st First of all, … The second reason(cause)/effect of ….. is …. TRANSITIONS The second reason(cause)/effect of …. is that… (S+V) Another reason(cause)/effect of ….. is ….2nd BODY Another reason(cause)/effect of …. is that… (S+V) In addition to ….(1st cause/effect) NOUN PHRASE), S+V Besides ….(1st cause/effect) NOUN PHRASE), S+V The last/third reason(cause)/effect of ….. is …. The last/third reason(cause)/effect of ... is that… (S+V) In addition to ….(1st &2nd cause/effect) NOUN PHRASE), S+V3rd BODY Besides ….(1st&2nd cause/effect) NOUN PHRASE), S+V The last but not the least, …S+V The last but not cause(reason)/effect of … is …(NOUN PHRASE) the least cause(reason)/effect of … is (that …. S+V
ORDER IDEAS EMPHATIC ORDERThe main parts in an essay are often organizedaccording to their importance. Often, less importantpoints are given first More important points are givenlater, with the most important point coning last. Thisis called EMPHATIC ORDER. It draws attention tothe last, most important one.1st Body Paragraph: LESS IMPORTANT POINT2nd Body Paragraph: MORE IMPORTANT POINT3rd Body Paragraph: MOST IMPORTANT POINT
CONCLUSION TRANSITION, RESTATEMENT, SUMMARY, CLOSURE The conclusion is the last paragraph in your essay. Aconclusion completes the essay and reemphasizes your thesisstatement or main ideas. Look at the example thesis statementand conclusion below.
A Conclusion Useful Transitions It is sometimes helpful to have a transition at thebeginning of your conclusion to signal the end of youressay. Some common transitions used in conclusionsare listed below. Remember to use a comma after yourtransitions. In conclusion, Therefore, In summary, To conclude, Thus, In short,
RESTATEMENT Thesis Statement When I first found out that I was diagnosed with cancer, I tooktwo important steps to fight the disease. First sentence in conclusion reemphasizes ideas in thesis statement. First Sentence of Conclusion Ultimately, because of the steps I took, I was successful in fighting the disease…
SUMMARY So What? In addition to referring back to your main idea, yourconclusion needs to show your reader the significance ofyour thesis. When discussing the importance of yourthesis, try to address questions such as… How and why is this topic important? How might this topic affect me or other people? What can be learned from this topic?
Example #1 So What?Look at the example below of a conclusionthat shows the reader the importance of themain idea of the essay.
Example #1 Conclusion Paragraph Draft Ultimately, because of the steps I took, I was successful in fighting the disease. Iwas able to become healthy enough to attend my daughter’s wedding, and I no longerworried about dying. Others suffering with cancer can learn an important lesson frommy experience: Don’t give up no matter how hopeless things may seem and alwaysget a second opinion from another doctor! The writer points The writer out how the steps discusses the she took to fight importance of her cancer affected topic by writing her and other about the lessons people. that can be learned.
Example #2 ConclusionLook at the example below of a conclusionthat refers back to the thesis statement andshows the reader the importance of the mainidea of the essay.
Example #2 Thesis Statement There were several factors that caused my family to make the difficult decision to immigrate to the United States. Conclusion Paragraph The decision to move to the United States was a difficult one for my parents tomake. Though I was angry with their decision at the time, I understand now that thepoor economy and political instability of my country forced them to immigrate.Through this experience I learned that one simply cannot control all of life’scircumstances. One must learn to deal with tough situations as they come and workto be successful regardless of one’s location. The first two sentences The writer concludes by reemphasize the thesis discussing the lessons statement. learned from his experience.
Concluding an Essay Techniques Some ways to enhance a conclusion are toinclude a… Prediction Recommendation Quotation
Concluding an Essay A PredictionA prediction talks about what might happen in the future. A predictioncan be a good way to finish your essay. It can make your reader thinkabout the possible results of your thesis statement.
Thesis PredictionStatement Example A program to reforest parts of Haiti is urgently needed. Finally, the importance of beginning a program to reforest parts of Haiti will be an important step in making thiscountry more economically self-sufficient. Without such aprogram in place, the people of this country will continue todestroy their natural resources for fuel in order to salvage theirpresent state of survival. A prediction is used to make the reader think about possible results of the thesis.
Concluding an Essay A RecommendationA recommendation is often used by a writer after he/she has discusseda problem in an essay. A recommendation can be used to suggest asolution or call the readers to do something about the problem in theessay.
Recommendation Example As we have seen, international students face a numberof difficulties when coming to a new country to study.However, problems such as culture-shock and the languagebarrier can be lessened before a student comes to the newcountry through preparation. If you are considering going toschool in another country, you should begin learning about theculture, customs, and history of your host nation. Also, youshould be sure that you are proficient in the national languageor be sure to sign up for language classes once you are there. A recommendation is used to suggest a solution to a problem.
Concluding an Essay “A Quotation”A relevant quotation can bring good closure to your essay, especially if the quotation is from an expert on the topic in your composition.
Quotation Example David Werner, author of, Where There Is No Doctor,notes that, “Only when the people themselves become activelyresponsible for their own and their community’s health, canimportant changes take place.” This should be the mantra ofevery public health agency when looking at makingimprovements in common health problems. Unless acommunity understands the importance of the intervention andtakes responsibility for transformation, no long-lasting changeswill be made. A quotation from an expert can be used to add credibility to a writer’s position.