Master Plan Review by MANIT, Bhopal

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This presentation was given by MANIT, Bhopal for "Anusandhaana" - XV Annual NOSPlan Convention

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  • RECOVERY KE LIYE PLANS AND ACTIONS …………CRIME ……….INTRO AND PROPOSALS.
  • Master Plan Review by MANIT, Bhopal

    1. 1. MAULANA AZAD NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, Bhopal
    2. 2.  A Safe City can be defined as city which provides safety to all the citizens from crimes, natural calamities, health hazards etc. A safe city deals with every aspect of Planning.  Issues targeted:  Disaster Risk Management  Crime Prevention  Health Hazard Management
    3. 3.  COASTAL MEGACITY : MUMBAI Mumbai has been identified as one of the 3 most vulnerable cities of the world which will be affected by climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).  As a Mega polis, Mumbai has a diverse population which results in a variety of crimes.  Crime against women more than double in 2013.  Population Density: 27,209 persons/km2  Slum Population: 6.5 million
    4. 4. Utilities:  water supply – lack of back-up system; inadequate sewerage systems  Infrastructure: flyovers, hospitals in weak condition  Power failures (interstate power grid)  Existence of hazardous industries  Oil spills The factors contributing to disaster risks in Mumbai :    Being an “Island city”, the transport networks are in general poor. Inadequate road width vs. parking space Change of use of buildings from ordinary to critical functions without retrofitting or strengthening the building.     Presence of large floating population during office hours High population density in commercial areas and slums Improper and inadequate garbage collection and disposal. Mumbai is a soft target for human induced disasters such as bomb blasts, terrorism and riots.
    5. 5.  MCGM is the primary organization responsible for disaster management in city.  Several other agencies that are administratively independent of MCGM (Mumbai Police, Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA), Mumbai Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA), Indian Railways etc) are also responsible for the administration of the city.  Each agency has its own emergency control room for disaster management and has Standard Operating Procedures in place for responding to disasters.  During a disaster various control rooms, municipal departments and state departments are actively associated and are simultaneously involved in disaster response from warning to relief and rehabilitation.  This creates a situation of multiple authorities and multiple controls and relies on effective coordination by the MCGM.
    6. 6. Law
    7. 7.  The DRMMP (Disaster Risk Management Master Plan) is developed and adopted by Mumbai as a city-wide system for achieving disaster resiliency.  Under the DRMMP, all DRR activities are coordinated, monitored and evaluated to ensure that all stakeholders are working efficiently and that investments in DRR are optimized and justified.  The participatory approach taken by the DRMMP enables sustainability , capacity building and ownership building and will support the awareness raising of all stakeholders and communities
    8. 8. 1. Establish a competent emergency management system within Greater Mumbai. 2. Institutionalize a sound disaster risk management (DRM) practice for Stakeholders. 3. Propose a coherent set of policies and actions to reduce disaster risk within Greater Mumbai. 4. Make this project a model to other cities in India through knowledge sharing and participation.
    9. 9. The DRMMP addresses the following 9 components:  Component 1: Legal and Institutional Arrangements  Component 2: Hazards, Vulnerability, Risk Analyses  Component 3: Emergency/Disaster Management  Component 4: Disaster Risk Resiliency of Slums and Core Services  Component 5: Urban Development and Land Use Planning  Component 6: Construction Codes and Standards  Component 7: Training and Capacity Building  Component 8: Advocacy and Strategic Communication  Component 9: GIS and Information Technology
    10. 10. KEY PROCESSES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN DRMMP  A. IDENTIFICATION, ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING DISASTER RISKS   City highly vulnerable to floods. Almost 60% of average rainfall during 2 months in a year Often 35-40 % of annual rainfall occurs in 2-3 events. Highest rainfall recorded in one day: 944mm on July 26, 2005 (1200 mm is the average annual rainfall for India) Probability of 24-hour rainfall exceeding 200 mm is 50%. The problem of flooding acute when heavy rainfall coincides with high tide; i.e., more than 4.5 meters (average: 20 times during the monsoon).    
    11. 11.  Restricted access to mainland –relatively inaccessible to rest of country during a major hazard.  About 60% of the population lives in slums  There are over 3 million structures in Mumbai, giving it a very High structural density
    12. 12.       More than 2 million people living in > 16,000 dilapidated buildings of 4 to 6 storey, constructed 100125 years ago. Buildings vulnerable to collapse: 721 Roads narrow, sewage & garbage disposal systems collapsed Structures act as death trap in case of accidents, like fire Mumbai is highly vulnerable to fire, presence of petrochemical industries within city and lack of evacuation routes during fire. 154 Landslide Prone Areas where more than 3 million citizens live in informal hutments
    13. 13. 1. MCGM schemes supporting local communities in risk reduction activities: a)Advanced Locality Management: Initiated in 1997 to mobilizing citizens in a participative approach insetting up a system for dealing with the problem of solid waste management in an environmental friendly manner. b)Slum Adoption Scheme: Initiated to keep slums clean. c)Slum Sanitation Programme:Innovative approach in providing toilet facilities to slum dwellers.
    14. 14. 2.Manuals for awareness generation of the community. 3.Training Programmer conducted by MCGM & supported by UNDP & Govt. of Maharashtra. 4. Mock drills 5. Mumbai Emergency Management Exercises 6. Workshops / Exhibition
    15. 15. C. STRENGTHEN DISASTER PREPAREDNESS FOR EFFECTIVE RESPONSE  Well equipped Emergency Operations Centre at MCGM headquarters & all wards.  The Emergency Support Functions (ESF) concept has been adopted in the DRMMP project to provide a systematic and efficient system to organize the several stakeholders engaged in disaster risk management in the city, to provide them with a methodology for sharing knowledge and resources and to work efficiently to address the challenges of preparing, responding and recovering from any emergency situation.  On the basis of the ESFs, table top exercises are being conducted and hazard specific Standard Operating Procedures will be prepared which will be validated by conducting mock drills.
    16. 16.      SLUM REHABILITATION SCHEME CONSTRUCTION OF SHELTERS SAFE SCHOOLS EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS PREVENTIVE HEALTH CARE
    17. 17. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM     State of the Art Emergency Operation Center at Municipal Head Office & at all Wards Operational 24x7 Latest Communication Systems Early Warning System
    18. 18. Emergency Support Functions (ESF) concept has been adopted to engage all stakeholders involved in disaster management.  14 ESFs have been formulated, each of which is headed by a lead agency and is supported by identified support agencies.  Stakeholders are organized and provided with a methodology for sharing knowledge and resources and to work efficiently to address the challenges of preparing, responding and recovering from any emergency situation  On the basis of the ESFs, hazard specific Standard Operating Procedures will be prepared which will be validated by conducting mock drills. 
    19. 19.    Mumbai has gained the dubious distinction of being the second-most crime-prone city in India, registered under the Indian Penal Code (IPC). 6th most unsafe city in India for women. In 2012, Mumbai registered the highest number cases of rapes, molestation and sexual assault in Maharashtra. Mumbai accounted for around 10.4 per cent of crimes against women in the state in 2012.
    20. 20. Specific Crime Murder Rape Molestation Riot 200809 211 193 413 280 200910 240 171 384 384 % Increase 2008-09 to 200910 14% -11% -7% 37% House Breaking (Day/Night) 2731 3047 12% 3386 11% 2813 -17% Chain Snatching Thefts Accident/Fatal Accidents 1575 6378 1712 6697 9% 5% 2134 6495 25% -3% 1775 6271 -17% -3% 1437 2080 45% 2583 24% 2867 11% Vehicles Stolen 4245 4436 4% 4339 -2% 4833 11% % Increase 2009-10 to 2010-11 2010-11 240 0 180 5% 483 26% 385 0% % Increase 2010-11 to 2011-12 2011-12 220 -8% 207 15% 552 14% 365 -5% Reference: Report on State of Mumbai Policing 2013 Rape, Molestation, Accidents and Vehicle Stolen are growing consistently 25
    21. 21.  General  Zoning  For commercial buildings with high turnovers CCTV security system compulsory  Street lights, and planning of road network in neighborhoods.  Provisions for Traffic related crimes for reducing Accidents:  Traffic rules  Planning of routes, one ways, signals etc.  Provision of CCTV cameras at signals
    22. 22.  Law enforcing activities by Mumbai Police  Neighborhood security system/ guards  Helpline numbers for Women  Traffic police for Enforcing the traffic rules  Night patrolling by the Mumbai Police  Coast guards for the Sea border protection
    23. 23.    Mumbai health and safety is badly affected by the pollution. The pollution causes allergies, infection and other diseases among the Mumbai public. The health and safety services available are very less then their requirement. The disaster training is also not in pace with the changing environment. The rate of chronic sickness such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary artery disease increased in Mumbai last year.
    24. 24.    The Dharavi slums are Asia’s largest slums. The Drainage and Waste management facilities are insufficient. Due to poor living conditions, high population densities and pollution there is a high risk of epidemic outbreak.
    25. 25.  Management and disposal waste  More than 5000 metric tons of solid waste is generated every day in Mumbai.  The municipal corporation is in charge of the disposal of this waste  Health in Mumbai Hospitals  Mumbai has about 1000 health care centers.  Of these about 17are municipal hospitals which can be afforded by the urban poor who make up 50% of the population.  Awareness campaigns to prevent any epidemic.
    26. 26.    Govt. & Private Hospitals are linked with Disaster Management Cell for cases of epidemics. MCGM has provided healthcare service to over 3 lakh patients through Health Camps. As per norms, required number of beds is 100,000 which is 60,000 more than the actual number of beds.
    27. 27.  Land Use Planning Informal Settlements, decongestion, landfill sites, hazardous units and control on land reclamation should be considered in drafting land use plans.  Waste Water Drainage  The sewerage system underground drainage pipes in Greater Mumbai needs renovation and a plan in providing underground drainage connectivity to slum areas needs to materialize.  The need to provide new sewerage network and pre-identify open places during disasters for evacuation where disaster victims may be temporarily settled in relief camps with proper waste disposal facilities.  Transport  Focused attention needs to be paid to the transport bottlenecks which may arise in disaster situations, particularly if main arterial roads are breached or obstructed .  Maximum Traffic calculation, accident reduction using intelligent transportation system (ITS).
    28. 28.  Project Planning and Control Department  Disaster risk reduction should be integrated with the development plans and structural and nonstructural safety should be considered among project proposals.  Implementation  Effective participation of Non governmental organisation / voluntary organisation.
    29. 29.      Private security as a general measure of crime prevention in city should be recognized and enhanced. E-safety mapping provisions in the master plan. The existing flood warning system should be made effective. All the major bridges and foot bridges should be fenced to minimize dumping of waste directly to the river. Where necessary create infrastructure for continuous training, forensic labs, crime mapping and crime forecasting.
    30. 30. Three E - Mapping initiatives have been introduced by citizens in Mumbai, such as Jagaran.  The E-maps are based on public sources for information.  These E-maps mark the unsafe areas which are tagged by people and the reason why these are unsafe.  The E- map generates awareness among the common mass. 
    31. 31.    There should be an official E- Safety Map, prepared by an authority. With this map there will be data availability to citizens about the unsafe areas. These maps will be helpful to the Law enforcing agencies
    32. 32. Mumbai is subject to many natural and man-made hazards, and is a highly vulnerable city due to its geographical characteristics, a high urban density and about 8 million people living in extremely vulnerable slums  The city faces some of the complex challenges associated with vulnerability and risk reduction  Mumbai has made a remarkable shift from reactive to proactive disaster risk management within a few years  Through sustained investments, leadership, scientific planning and a participatory approach, the City has taken an irreversible course towards addressing its challenges in DRR. 
    33. 33. Mumbai, India disaster risk management profile. A MCGM initiative DRMMP in collaboration with earthquake and megacities initiative.  Development plan for greater Mumbai 20142034 inception report.  http://www.slideshare.net/tdapdm/earlywarning-systems-for-disaster-risk-reduction  http://www.nisg.org/home.php?page=capacity_ building.php  http://www.sanfranciscotobaccofreeproject.org/ capacity.html  

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