RECOVERY KE LIYE PLANS AND ACTIONS …………CRIME ……….INTRO AND PROPOSALS.
Master Plan Review by MANIT, Bhopal
MAULANA AZAD NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, Bhopal
A Safe City can be defined as city which
provides safety to all the citizens from
crimes, natural calamities, health hazards etc.
A safe city deals with every aspect of
Disaster Risk Management
Health Hazard Management
COASTAL MEGACITY : MUMBAI
Mumbai has been identified as one of
the 3 most vulnerable cities of the
world which will be affected by
climate change by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
As a Mega polis, Mumbai has a
diverse population which results in a
variety of crimes.
Crime against women more than
double in 2013.
Population Density: 27,209
Slum Population: 6.5 million
water supply – lack of back-up system; inadequate sewerage systems
Infrastructure: flyovers, hospitals in weak condition
Power failures (interstate power grid)
Existence of hazardous industries
The factors contributing to disaster risks in Mumbai :
Being an “Island city”, the transport networks are in general poor.
Inadequate road width vs. parking space
Change of use of buildings from ordinary to critical functions without retrofitting
or strengthening the building.
Presence of large floating population during office hours
High population density in commercial areas and slums
Improper and inadequate garbage collection and disposal.
Mumbai is a soft target for human induced disasters such as bomb
blasts, terrorism and riots.
MCGM is the primary organization responsible for disaster management in city.
Several other agencies that are administratively independent of MCGM (Mumbai
Police, Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority
(MMRDA), Mumbai Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA), Indian
Railways etc) are also responsible for the administration of the city.
Each agency has its own emergency control room for disaster management and
has Standard Operating Procedures in place for responding to disasters.
During a disaster various control rooms, municipal departments and state
departments are actively associated and are simultaneously involved in disaster
response from warning to relief and rehabilitation.
This creates a situation of multiple authorities and multiple controls and relies on
effective coordination by the MCGM.
The DRMMP (Disaster Risk Management Master Plan) is
developed and adopted by Mumbai as a city-wide system
for achieving disaster resiliency.
Under the DRMMP, all DRR activities are
coordinated, monitored and evaluated to ensure that all
stakeholders are working efficiently and that investments
in DRR are optimized and justified.
The participatory approach taken by the DRMMP enables
sustainability , capacity building and ownership building
and will support the awareness raising of all stakeholders
1. Establish a competent emergency management
system within Greater Mumbai.
2. Institutionalize a sound disaster risk
management (DRM) practice for Stakeholders.
3. Propose a coherent set of policies and actions to
reduce disaster risk within Greater Mumbai.
4. Make this project a model to other cities in India
through knowledge sharing and participation.
The DRMMP addresses the following 9 components:
Component 1: Legal and Institutional Arrangements
Component 2: Hazards, Vulnerability, Risk Analyses
Component 3: Emergency/Disaster Management
Component 4: Disaster Risk Resiliency of Slums and
Component 5: Urban Development and Land Use
Component 6: Construction Codes and Standards
Component 7: Training and Capacity Building
Component 8: Advocacy and Strategic
Component 9: GIS and Information Technology
KEY PROCESSES OF DISASTER
MANAGEMENT IN DRMMP
AND MONITORING DISASTER
City highly vulnerable to floods.
Almost 60% of average rainfall during 2 months in a
Often 35-40 % of annual rainfall occurs in 2-3 events.
Highest rainfall recorded in one day: 944mm on July
26, 2005 (1200 mm is the average annual rainfall for
Probability of 24-hour rainfall exceeding 200 mm is
The problem of flooding acute when heavy rainfall
coincides with high tide; i.e., more than 4.5 meters
(average: 20 times during the monsoon).
Restricted access to
inaccessible to rest of
country during a major
About 60% of the
population lives in slums
There are over 3 million
Mumbai, giving it a very
High structural density
More than 2 million people living
in > 16,000 dilapidated buildings
of 4 to 6 storey, constructed 100125 years ago.
Buildings vulnerable to collapse:
Roads narrow, sewage & garbage
disposal systems collapsed
Structures act as death trap in
case of accidents, like fire
Mumbai is highly vulnerable to
fire, presence of petrochemical
industries within city and lack of
evacuation routes during fire.
154 Landslide Prone Areas where
more than 3 million citizens live
in informal hutments
1. MCGM schemes supporting local communities in risk
a)Advanced Locality Management: Initiated in 1997 to
mobilizing citizens in a participative approach
insetting up a system for dealing with the problem of
solid waste management in an environmental friendly
b)Slum Adoption Scheme: Initiated to keep slums clean.
c)Slum Sanitation Programme:Innovative approach in
providing toilet facilities to slum dwellers.
2.Manuals for awareness generation of the
3.Training Programmer conducted by MCGM &
supported by UNDP & Govt. of Maharashtra.
4. Mock drills
5. Mumbai Emergency Management Exercises
6. Workshops / Exhibition
C. STRENGTHEN DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
FOR EFFECTIVE RESPONSE
Well equipped Emergency Operations Centre at MCGM headquarters &
The Emergency Support Functions (ESF) concept has been adopted in
the DRMMP project to provide a systematic and efficient system to
organize the several stakeholders engaged in disaster risk management
in the city, to provide them with a methodology for sharing knowledge
and resources and to work efficiently to address the challenges of
preparing, responding and recovering from any emergency situation.
On the basis of the ESFs, table top exercises are being conducted and
hazard specific Standard Operating Procedures will be prepared which
will be validated by conducting mock drills.
EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS
PREVENTIVE HEALTH CARE
State of the Art Emergency
Operation Center at
Municipal Head Office & at
Early Warning System
Emergency Support Functions (ESF)
concept has been adopted to engage
all stakeholders involved in disaster
14 ESFs have been formulated, each
of which is headed by a lead agency
and is supported by identified support
Stakeholders are organized and
provided with a methodology for
sharing knowledge and resources and
to work efficiently to address the
challenges of preparing, responding
and recovering from any emergency
On the basis of the ESFs, hazard
specific Standard Operating
Procedures will be prepared which will
be validated by conducting mock
Mumbai has gained the dubious distinction of
being the second-most crime-prone city in
India, registered under the Indian Penal Code
6th most unsafe city in India for women.
In 2012, Mumbai registered the highest
number cases of rapes, molestation and
sexual assault in Maharashtra. Mumbai
accounted for around 10.4 per cent of crimes
against women in the state in 2012.
For commercial buildings with high turnovers CCTV
security system compulsory
Street lights, and planning of road network in
Provisions for Traffic related crimes for reducing
Planning of routes, one ways, signals etc.
Provision of CCTV cameras at signals
Law enforcing activities by Mumbai Police
Neighborhood security system/ guards
Helpline numbers for Women
Traffic police for Enforcing the traffic rules
Night patrolling by the Mumbai Police
Coast guards for the Sea border protection
Mumbai health and safety is badly affected by
the pollution. The pollution causes
allergies, infection and other diseases among
the Mumbai public.
The health and safety services available are very
less then their requirement. The disaster training
is also not in pace with the changing
The rate of chronic sickness such as
diabetes, hypertension and coronary artery
disease increased in Mumbai last year.
The Dharavi slums are
Asia’s largest slums.
The Drainage and
Due to poor living conditions, high population
densities and pollution there is a high risk of
Management and disposal waste
More than 5000 metric tons of solid waste is
generated every day in Mumbai.
The municipal corporation is in charge of the disposal
of this waste
Health in Mumbai Hospitals
Mumbai has about 1000 health care centers.
Of these about 17are municipal hospitals which can be
afforded by the urban poor who make up 50% of the
Awareness campaigns to prevent any epidemic.
Govt. & Private Hospitals are linked with
Disaster Management Cell for cases of
MCGM has provided healthcare service to
over 3 lakh patients through Health Camps.
As per norms, required number of beds is
100,000 which is 60,000 more than the actual
number of beds.
Land Use Planning
Informal Settlements, decongestion, landfill sites, hazardous units and control
on land reclamation should be considered in drafting land use plans.
Waste Water Drainage
The sewerage system underground drainage pipes in Greater Mumbai needs
renovation and a plan in providing underground drainage connectivity to
slum areas needs to materialize.
The need to provide new sewerage network and pre-identify open places
during disasters for evacuation where disaster victims may be temporarily
settled in relief camps with proper waste disposal facilities.
Focused attention needs to be paid to the transport bottlenecks which may
arise in disaster situations, particularly if main arterial roads are breached or
Maximum Traffic calculation, accident reduction using intelligent
transportation system (ITS).
Project Planning and Control Department
Disaster risk reduction should be integrated with
the development plans and structural and nonstructural safety should be considered among
Effective participation of Non governmental
organisation / voluntary organisation.
Private security as a general measure of crime
prevention in city should be recognized and
E-safety mapping provisions in the master plan.
The existing flood warning system should be
All the major bridges and foot bridges should be
fenced to minimize dumping of waste directly to
Where necessary create infrastructure for
continuous training, forensic labs, crime
mapping and crime forecasting.
Three E - Mapping initiatives have been
introduced by citizens in Mumbai, such as
The E-maps are based on public sources for
These E-maps mark the unsafe areas which are
tagged by people and the reason why these are
The E- map generates awareness among the
There should be an
official E- Safety
Map, prepared by an
With this map there
will be data availability to citizens about the
These maps will be helpful to the Law
Mumbai is subject to many natural and man-made
hazards, and is a highly vulnerable city due to its
geographical characteristics, a high urban density and
about 8 million people living in extremely vulnerable slums
The city faces some of the complex challenges associated
with vulnerability and risk reduction
Mumbai has made a remarkable shift from reactive to proactive disaster risk management within a few years
Through sustained investments, leadership, scientific
planning and a participatory approach, the City has taken
an irreversible course towards addressing its challenges in
Mumbai, India disaster risk management profile.
A MCGM initiative DRMMP in collaboration with
earthquake and megacities initiative.
Development plan for greater Mumbai 20142034 inception report.