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Knee joint

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Knee joint

  1. 1. FORMATION OF KNEE JOINT  IT IS A LARGE AND COMPLICATED JOINT OF THE BODY.  IT IS COMPLEX DUE TO FUSION OF THREE JOINTS.  IT IS MADE UP OF FEMUR, TIBIA AND PATELLA.
  2. 2. JOINT TYPE  IT IS A COMPOUND SYNOVIAL JOINT.  IT INCORPORATES TWO CONDYLER JOINTS BETWEEN THE CONDYLES OF FEMUR AND TIBIA.  AND THIRD ONE IS SADDLE JOINT BETWEEN THE FEMUR AND THE PATELLA.
  3. 3. ARTICULAR SURFACES THE ARTICULAR SURFACES OF KNEE JOINT ARE AS FOLLOWING.  THE CONDYLES OF FEMUR.  THE PATELLA.  THE CONDYLES OF TIBIA.
  4. 4. LIGAMENTS THE KNEE JOINT IS SUPPORTED BY FOLLOWING LIGAMENTS.  FIBROUS CAPSULE.  LIGAMENTUM PATELLAE.  TIBIAL COLATERAL LIGAMENT.  FIBULAR COLATERAL LIGAMENT.
  5. 5. LIGAMENTS  ARCUATE POPLITEAL LIGAMENT.  ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT.  POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT.  MEDIAL MENISCUS.  OBLIQUE POPLITEAL LIGAMENT.  LATERAL MENISCUS.  TRANSVERSE LIGAMENT.
  6. 6. FIBROUS CAPSULE  IT IS VERY THIN CAPSULE.  IT SURROUNDS THE SIDES AND POSTERIOR ASPECT OF JOINT.  IT IS ANTERIORLY DEFICIENT.  LATERALLY IT ENCLOSES THE POPLITEUS.
  7. 7. FIBROUS CAPSULE IT IS STRENGTHENED BY THE FOLLOWINGS.  ANTERIORLY: VASTUS MEDIALIS, VASTUS LATERALIS.  LATERALLY: ILLIOTIBIAL TRACT.  MEDIALLY: TENDONS OF SARTORIUS, SEMIMEMBRANOSUS.  POSTERIORLY: OBLIQUE POIPLITEAL LIGAMENT .
  8. 8. LIGAMENTUM PATELLAE  IT IS THE CENTRAL PORTION OF TENDON OF QUADRICEPS FEMORIS.  IT IS RELATED TO SUPERFICIAL AND DEEP INFRAPATELLAR BURSAE AND INFRAPATELLAR PAD OF FAT.  ATTACHMENTS: ABOVE: APEX OF PATELLA.  BELOW: TIBIAL TUBEROSITY.
  9. 9. TIBIAL COLATERAL LIGAMENT  IT IS A LONG BAND OF GREAT STRENGTH.  IT COVERS THE INFERIOR MEDIAL GENICULAR VESSELS AND NERVES AND TENDON OF SEMIMEMBRANOSUS.  ATTACHMENTS: SUPERIORLY: MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF FEMUR.  INFERIORLY: DIVIDES INTO ANTERIOR & POSTERIOR PARTS.  POSTERIORLY: CAPSULE, MEDIAL MENISCUS.
  10. 10. FIBULAR COLATERAL LIGAMENT  IT IS STRONG AND CORD LIKE LIGAMENT.  IT EXTENDS FROM LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF FEMUR TO HEAD OF FIBULA.  IT IS FREE FROM THE CAPSULE.  IT REPRESENTS FEMORAL ATTACHMENTS OF PERONEUS LONGUS.
  11. 11. OBLIQUE POPLITEAL LIGAMENT  THIS IS EXPANSION OF TENDON OF SEMIMEMARNOSUS.  IT IS ATTACHED TO INTERCONDYLAR LINE AND LATERAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR.  AND RELATED TO THE POPLITEAL ARTERY AND THE POSTERIOR DIVISION OF OBTURATOR NERVE.
  12. 12. ARCUATE POPLITEAL LIGAMENT  IT’S THE EXPANSION OF LATERAL LIGAMENT.  IT EXTENDS FROM THE HEAD OF FIBULA TO THE INTERCONDYLAR AREA OF THE TIBIA.
  13. 13. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT  ITS THICK FIBROUS BAND TO MAINTAIN STABILITY OF KNEE JOINT.  IT EXTENDS FROM INTERCONDYLAR AREA OF TIBIA TO MEDIAL SURFACE OF LATERAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR.  IT IS TAUT DURING KNEE EXTENSION. ACL
  14. 14. POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT  THE STRONG AND THICK FIBROUS JOINT.  IT EXTENDS FROM INTERCONDYLAR AREA OF TIBIA TO MEDIAL SURFACE OF LATERAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR.  IT TAUTS DURING KNEE FLEXION.
  15. 15. MEDIAL MENISCUS  IT HAS TWO ENDS, TWO BORDERS AND TWO SURFACES.  IT IS RELATIVELY IMMOBILE.  ITS PERIPHERAL MARGIN IS ADHERENT TO IT IS C-SHAPED FIBROCARTILAGENOUS DISC.  TIBIAL COLATERAL LIGAMENT.  MORE LIABLE TO INJURY.
  16. 16. LATERAL MENISCUS  IT IS MORE ROUND IN SHAPE.  HAS TWO ENDS, TWO BORDERS AND TWO SURFACES.  THE OUTER BORDER IS CONVEX AND THICK.  THE INNER BORDER IS CONCAVE AND THIN.  THE UPPER SURFACE IS CONCAVE AND LOWER SURFACE IS FLAT.
  17. 17. TRANSVERSE LIGAMENT  IT CONNECTS THE ANTERIOR ENDS OF MEDIAL AND LATERAL MENISCI.
  18. 18. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE  IT LINES THE JOINT CAPSULE EXCEPT POSTERIORLY WHERE CRUCIATE LIGAMENTS FOUND.  IN FRONT, IT IS ABSENT FROM PATELLA.  BELOW THE PATELLA, IT COVERS THE INFRAPATELLAR PAD OF FAT.  THE FREE BORDERS OF INFRAPATELLR FOLD ARE CALLED AS ALAR FOLD.
  19. 19. BURSAE  THERE ARE 13 BURSAE IN THE KNEE JOINT.  THE FOUR ARE ANTERIOR, FOUR ARE LATERAL AND FOUR ARE MEDIAL.
  20. 20. ANTERIOR BURSAE THESE ARE FOUR IN NUMBERS.  SUBCUTANEOUS PREPATELLAR BURSA.  SUBCUTANEOUS INFRAPATELLAR BURSA.  DEEP INFRA PATELLAR BURSA.  SUPRAPATELLAR BURSA.
  21. 21. LATERAL BURSAE THERE ARE FOUR LATERAL BURSAE.  A BURSA DEEP TO LATERAL HEAD OF GASTROCNEMIUS.  A BURSA B/W FIBULAR COLATERAL LIGAMENT AND THE BICEPS FEMORIS.  A BURSA B/W FIBULAR COLATERAL LIGAMENT AND TENDON OF POPLITEUS.  A BURSA B/W TENDON OF POPLITEUS AND LATERAL CONDYLE OF THE TIBIA.
  22. 22. MEDIAL BURSAE THE FOUR MEDIAL BURSAE ARE AS FOLLOWS.  A BURSA DEEP TO THE MEDIAL HEAD OF GASTROCNEMIUS.  THE ANSERINE BURSA.  A BURSA DEEP TO THE TIBIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT.  A BURSA DEEP TO SEMIMEMBRANOSUS.
  23. 23. RELATIONS OF KNEE ANTERIORLY: ANTERIOR BURSA, LIGAMENTUM PATELLAE, PATELLAR PLEXUS. POSTERIORLY: POPLITEAL VESSEL, TIBIAL NERVE, PERONEAL NERVE, GASTROCNEMIUS, PLANTARIS, SEMITENDINOSUS, SEMIMEMBRANOSUS, GRACILIS, POPLITEUS.
  24. 24. RELATIONS OF KNEE MEDIALLY: SARTORIUS, GRACILIS, SEMITENDINOSUS, SAPHE NOUS VEIN, SAPHENOUS NERVE, SEMIMEMBRANOSUS. LATERALLY: BICEPS FEMORIS, TENDON OF POPLITEUS
  25. 25. BLOOD SUPPLY KNEE JOINT IS SUPPLIED BY ANASTOMOSES AROUND IT.  5 GENICULAR BRANCHES OF POPLITEAL ARTERY.  DESCENDING GENICULAR BRANCH OF FEMORAL ARTERY.  DESCENDING BRANCH OF LATERAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY.  2 BRANCHES OF ANTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY.  CIRCUMFLEX FIBULAR BRANCH OF TIBIAL ARTEY.
  26. 26. NERVE SUPPLY FOLLOWING NERVES SUPPLY THE KNEE JOINT.  FEMORAL NERVE  SCIATIC NERVE  OBTURATOR NERVE
  27. 27. MOVEMENTS OF KNEE JOINT ACTIVE MOVEMENTS: FLEXION  EXTENSION
  28. 28. MOVEMENTS OF KNEE JOINT ROTATORY MOVEMENTS: LOCKING OF KNEES  MECHANISM THAT ALLOWS THE KNEE TO REMAIN IN POSITION OF FULL EXTENSION AS IN STANDING WITHOUT MUSCULAR EFFORT.
  29. 29. MOVEMENTS OF KNEE ROTATORY MOVEMENTS: UNLOCKING OF KNEES  IT IS BROUGHT ABOUT BY LATERAL ROTATION OF THE FEMUR.

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