Enhancing AT Solutions Through
Industrial Design Techniques

Scott Haynes, MBME
N
Natasha Powell, BSME, MID (candidate)
S
...
Acknowledgements




•   National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDDR)
    – Workplace Accommodatio...
Workshop Agenda




  •    Introduction
  •    Workstation studio project
  •    Industrial Design process
  •    Common I...
Assistive Technology comes in all shapes and sizes…




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…is used to accomplish a variety of tasks…




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…some can be appealing…




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…others, not so much…




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…some is functional…




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…some try for both and hit neither!!




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…usually done with the best of intentions…




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…MASS PRODUCTION!!!




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…ending with a big check…




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
…and riches beyond your wildest dreams!!!




June 27, 2009   RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
Often difficult to move beyond the one-of-a-kind solution…




                                            …to one with mo...
UD Workstation Studio




•    Engage undergraduate students in ID studio to generate preliminary
     concepts
•    Selec...
Workspace Observations




       Nursing           Radio Stations                           Airport check-in




June 27,...
Workspace Analysis




  •    Analyzing work flows 4 traits were used to organize occupations
        • Openness of workfl...
Universal Design Studio - Simulation Exercises




Bartender Workspace        ticket office workspace            secretary...
Some project results…




   •    Supermarket
   •    Primary Stakeholders: Employees with little reach
   •    Final desi...
Some project results…




•   Dental Hygienist
•   Primary Stakeholders:
     • Dental Hygienists with back pain, RSI

•  ...
“Typical” AT Approach




       Referral                                                        Follow-up




  Data Gath...
The Product Development Process




Defining Opportunities          Visualizing and Analyzing Concepts   Engineering   Dis...
ID Techniques




Data
Gathering
            Data Analysis   Synthesis
Data Gathering
Capturing information about user context and Behavior
Data Gathering




•Used to study a set of users or user behaviors ,in participation with them.

•In Product Development, ...
Data Gathering




Journals/Diaries                    Drawing/Collage                   Photo/video
The user is asked to ...
Data Gathering
                    Comparison of tools
Time




             less            more

Money




             ...
Data Gathering
                                                                  Journals/Diaries




•   To pick up on us...
Data Gathering
                                                           Drawings/Collages




•   To elicit priorities h...
Data Gathering
                                             Data Gathering
                                           Phot...
Data Analysis
Assembling information into main ideas
Data Analysis




Manipulation   Aggregation   Deconstruction   Abstraction
Data Analysis

Manipulation
Data Analysis

                                                                 Manipulation




•Sorting and rearranging ...
Data Analysis
                                                                   Data Analysis


                         ...
Data Analysis
                                                                   Data Analysis


                         ...
Data Analysis

                                                             Abstraction




•Using to simplify complex dat...
Synthesis
Translating Ideas into Physical Forms
Synthesis




Exercise: Observation of Dental Hygienists:
•   Hygienists frequently in forward or side leaning position
• ...
Synthesis




Design Goals
•Allow tools to be multipurpose and reduce need for forceful gripping
and wrist bending
•Arrang...
Prototyping




•   explorative sketches and prototyping
•   Initial sketched forms were allowed to be low in
    details ...
Value of physical Prototyping
Value of physical Prototyping
Summary

Data Gathering




                    Diaries/ Journals         Drawings / Collages   Photo / Videotaping

Data ...
Video
Exercise




• You are given the task of re-designing
  the interior of this airplane.
• Take notes on users overall exper...
Q and A / Discussion




         • ID vs. “Typical” Rehab methods
                • How does this process differ from you...
Thank You!!
                                         •    Enhancing AT Solutions Through
                                 ...
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Enhancing AT through ID Techniques

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Link to video used in exercise : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AytfuE-wqbA
Link to document with resource list:
http://www.slideshare.net/northavorange/enhancing-at-through-id-techniques-handouts

Rehabilitation professionals classify
needs and identify workable solutions
for people with disabilities on a daily
basis. Unfortunately, many of those
solutions never get beyond the one
person for whom they are made. The
ability to develop solutions that have a
more universal appeal and application
would be a useful tool in the AT
provider’s “tool belt.” Industrial
Designers face such challenges as
a matter of practice. This workshop
will educate participants with regard
to tools and techniques used by
Industrial Designers that can help the
“one-of-a-kind” solutions grow into a
more universally marketable solution.

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Enhancing AT through ID Techniques

  1. 1. Enhancing AT Solutions Through Industrial Design Techniques Scott Haynes, MBME N Natasha Powell, BSME, MID (candidate) S Srikanth Jalasutram, BSME, MID (candidate) Georgia Institute of Technology June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  2. 2. Acknowledgements • National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDDR) – Workplace Accommodations RERC • Colleagues at Georgia Tech – College of Architecture – School of Industrial Design June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  3. 3. Workshop Agenda • Introduction • Workstation studio project • Industrial Design process • Common Industrial Design techniques • Brief “in-class” exercise • Discussion – ID vs. “Typical” AT development methods – Adding ID professionals to the team June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  4. 4. Assistive Technology comes in all shapes and sizes… June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  5. 5. …is used to accomplish a variety of tasks… June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  6. 6. …some can be appealing… June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  7. 7. …others, not so much… June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  8. 8. …some is functional… June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  9. 9. …some try for both and hit neither!! June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  10. 10. …usually done with the best of intentions… June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  11. 11. …MASS PRODUCTION!!! June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  12. 12. …ending with a big check… June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  13. 13. …and riches beyond your wildest dreams!!! June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  14. 14. Often difficult to move beyond the one-of-a-kind solution… …to one with more general appeal. June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  15. 15. UD Workstation Studio • Engage undergraduate students in ID studio to generate preliminary concepts • Select products for further development in graduate design studios and thesis projects • Work with project partners to commercialize new universal designs June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  16. 16. Workspace Observations Nursing Radio Stations Airport check-in June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  17. 17. Workspace Analysis • Analyzing work flows 4 traits were used to organize occupations • Openness of workflow to customer input • Distribution of Tasks in the workspace • Number of Tasks • Ownership of workspace June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  18. 18. Universal Design Studio - Simulation Exercises Bartender Workspace ticket office workspace secretary workspace •Observation and role playing techniques were shared with the Junior Studios for a Universal workspace design exercise. June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  19. 19. Some project results… • Supermarket • Primary Stakeholders: Employees with little reach • Final design: Retractable Shelving June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  20. 20. Some project results… • Dental Hygienist • Primary Stakeholders: • Dental Hygienists with back pain, RSI • Final designs: • Forward Support Chair June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  21. 21. “Typical” AT Approach Referral Follow-up Data Gathering: Analyze Data Implement •Person & Accommodation •Environment Determine Solution Solution •Activity June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  22. 22. The Product Development Process Defining Opportunities Visualizing and Analyzing Concepts Engineering Distribution • Balancing broad and narrow focus • Focus on user(s) experience • Weighing the emotional equally with functional • Make tangible solutions based on users’ behavior and beliefs
  23. 23. ID Techniques Data Gathering Data Analysis Synthesis
  24. 24. Data Gathering Capturing information about user context and Behavior
  25. 25. Data Gathering •Used to study a set of users or user behaviors ,in participation with them. •In Product Development, ethnographic tools can be used to study user behaviors, contexts of product use, and cultural settings prior to designing.
  26. 26. Data Gathering Journals/Diaries Drawing/Collage Photo/video The user is asked to record Asking users to elicit opinions Researcher captures relevant data actions, feelings, own drawing or choosing artifacts/ in the primarily capture more observations at a regular time or images provided by the information than words alone during a particular situation provide (audio as well)
  27. 27. Data Gathering Comparison of tools Time less more Money less more Data Depth less more
  28. 28. Data Gathering Journals/Diaries • To pick up on users context ,experience and things that are important to the User • Requires more effort from user (user error more possible) • Best to combine with simple technologies such as Cameras, Phones etc • In Design: Lextant allowing teens to document via pictures and vocal notes their shopping
  29. 29. Data Gathering Drawings/Collages • To elicit priorities hard for user to articulate • Used to understand user’s perception of attributes • Collages can be made from images, drawings, words and artifacts • Use a combination of multiple things to convey user insight. • In Design: Lextant used collages to determine what rugged physically meant to consumers
  30. 30. Data Gathering Data Gathering Photo/Video Capture • To capture implicit user behavior • Video analysis can be time- consuming • Combining quotes from users with images is best • In Design: Steelcase set up cameras in part of a health care facility to determine workflow/space issues for variety of users
  31. 31. Data Analysis Assembling information into main ideas
  32. 32. Data Analysis Manipulation Aggregation Deconstruction Abstraction
  33. 33. Data Analysis Manipulation
  34. 34. Data Analysis Manipulation •Sorting and rearranging (but not changing existing data) •All most all types of research results are approached this way first •Example: To determine technology importance patterns based on age photos collected of each persons bag contents are divided into age groups
  35. 35. Data Analysis Data Analysis Aggregation •Looking at multiple sources of information to ensure a BROADER understanding of data context •Often used to gathering various perspectives to define the USER EXPERIENCE •Example: Looking through data from students schedule, study habits, teacher and parent interviews to learn more about student focus issues
  36. 36. Data Analysis Data Analysis Deconstruction morningorning m noon afternoon •Breaking down data into components that are easier to analyze •Often used with large clumps of data •Example: Separating parts of video of user in work environment according to time of day to better determine what aspects of his/her environment are the most stressful
  37. 37. Data Analysis Abstraction •Using to simplify complex data to find patterns to form a hypothesis •Hypothesis requires further testing to be validated •Requires planning in the gathering stage of exactly what question to ask
  38. 38. Synthesis Translating Ideas into Physical Forms
  39. 39. Synthesis Exercise: Observation of Dental Hygienists: • Hygienists frequently in forward or side leaning position • Hygienists move back and forth to grab tools from desk then get to patient • Hygienists use a large quantity of tools that have a single function
  40. 40. Synthesis Design Goals •Allow tools to be multipurpose and reduce need for forceful gripping and wrist bending •Arrange the work environment to allow hygienist to efficiently grab tools •Support multiple postures in hygienist’s chair
  41. 41. Prototyping • explorative sketches and prototyping • Initial sketched forms were allowed to be low in details (low fidelity) • “quick and dirty” approach building prototypes • Refinement done in successive iterations
  42. 42. Value of physical Prototyping
  43. 43. Value of physical Prototyping
  44. 44. Summary Data Gathering Diaries/ Journals Drawings / Collages Photo / Videotaping Data Analysis Manipulation Aggregation Deconstruction Abstraction Synthesis Sketching Prototyping
  45. 45. Video
  46. 46. Exercise • You are given the task of re-designing the interior of this airplane. • Take notes on users overall experience. • Pick top three areas for improvement.
  47. 47. Q and A / Discussion • ID vs. “Typical” Rehab methods • How does this process differ from yours? • What do you see that you could implement? • Adding ID professionals to the team • Who would / have you contact(ed)? • Where would you go to find one? June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA
  48. 48. Thank You!! • Enhancing AT Solutions Through • Industrial Design Georgia Tech – CATEA • Techniques www.workrerc.org www.catea.org June 27, 2009 RESNA Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, LA

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