Introduction Welcoming remarks…… Introduce instructor…… Program description Provides an overview of the development of slotted trench drain systems, an upgrade from traditional grated systems. Functional design and aesthetic considerations are discussed, as well as the integral qualities of a pre-engineered, u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated trench drain system. Program contents Learning Objectives Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage Functions & Features Applications Installation Conclusion Questions
Introduction As required, explain continuing education requirements and reporting of credits etc…..
Introduction Learning Objectives At the end of this program, participants will be able to: discuss the evolution of surface and floor methods of drainage from basic ditches to pre-engineered trench drains evaluate the functional features of u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated trench drain systems, and compare them to those of other trench drain systems identify the components of u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated trench drain systems for commercial and residential applications, and describe the design considerations and installation requirements of u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated trench drain systems for specific building projects.
Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage Brief History of Drainage Over time, methods of drainage and the design of drains have advanced significantly. Early drainage systems were simple open ditches used to channel water or drain an area of land. As construction materials evolved, these simple drainage systems gave way to a progression of more complex trench drain systems, including cast-in-place, pre-cast concrete, corrugated slot drains, polymer concrete trenches, fiberglass trench drains, and more recently, pre-engineered HDPE (high density polyethylene) trenches and LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene) grated slot drains.
Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage Traditional Trench Drains Cast-in-Place Trench Drains Cast-in-place is the original standard trench drain design. The installation of this system is labor intensive and requires combining a wooden mold, metal frames and grating to create a cast trench. In addition, post-installation, this system requires thorough maintenance and time spent cleaning out debris. Pre-Cast Concrete Trench Drains Pre-cast concrete trench drain systems use large metal molds to form concrete drains. This design requires less time to install than a cast-in-place system, but the concrete pieces are often heavy and bulky to work with. Slotted Trench Drains Depending on the manufacturer, many trench drains have a grated top. These grates are subject to wear and tear, resulting in additional maintenance and labor time to clean out the system. Due to multiple usage overtime, the components are subject to bending, twisting, and dislodging, and will eventually need to be replaced. Pre-Engineered Trench Drains A pre-engineered trench drain system consists of modular u- or v-shaped channels, grates, and outlets, all of which can be made from a variety of materials. These modular, lightweight, durable systems are designed for ease of installation, for structural integrity, and to be pleasing to the eye upon completion. Their non-porous, chemical resistant surfaces, combined with a consistent slope, provide constant flow to ensure water is never left standing or sitting in the drain. The versatile design of the sections makes them suitable for standard applications, or they can be easily modified by a manufacturer for custom applications.
Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage Non-Grated, U-Shaped, Single-Slotted Drains The most effective, durable, pre-engineered trench drain design used today consists of a single slot-style mouth on top of a formed, u-shaped base. This system is used to remove water with a complex grading or other water channeling device. Designs vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Pre-engineered, single-slotted drains with a u-shaped base are available with a single-slot opening of 1” or 1 ½” for commercial applications and ½” for residential applications. These drains do not have a grate over the top and require far less maintenance than other styles of pre-engineered trench drains, including drain systems with self-cleaning functions. The absence of grating helps make this single-slotted, open floor/surface drain durable, sanitary and cost effective.
Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage Drain Materials: Fiberglass Drain channels made from fiberglass generally come in 10’ sections and may have wide openings of 6” and 12”. They are chemical-resistant, but they do have a .3% absorption rate. They include mechanical overlapping joints and built-in rebar clips. A fiberglass product may not be as durable as the metal varieties, and their grates will need replacing as they wear out and become hazardous to people and machines passing over them. Drain Materials: HDPE HDPE (high-density polyethylene) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. HDPE channels are usually available in 6’ to 10’ sections with widths ranging from 2.5” to 26”. Chemical-resistant and lightweight, they come with pre-sloped, independent frames and built-in interlocking mechanical joints. HDPE channels require grated covers and may not provide the durability required for some applications. Drain Materials: Stainless Steel & Galvanized Metal Stainless steel and galvanized metal channels are the most durable of the u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain systems. Strong and lightweight, stainless steel and galvanized metal pre-engineered slotted drains come in modular 3 meter (9’ 10”) sections that are pre-sloped .05% (½”) per section. Galvanized metal or stainless steel sections may also be available in 1’, 3’, and 5’ un-sloped sections. These sections also come with mechanically locking joints, or bolt- together flanges. Absorption rates can vary; however, the single-slotted, stainless steel channels are ideal for the food and beverage industry where traditional trench drain grating may trap bacteria.
Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage Cost Comparison Cost comparisons of slotted drains vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Grated, u-shaped drains average $60-70 per lineal foot. However, future replacement grates must be considered in the cost factor, and replacement grates average $15-20 per lineal foot. In comparison, galvanized u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drains average $40 per lineal foot. Stainless steel u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drains are also available, but they may be more expensive (subject to market price).
Functions & Features This section of the presentation highlights some of the functions and features of non-grated, u-shaped, single-slotted drain systems, including: aesthetics cleaning requirements flow structural capabilities, and durability. Aesthetics A u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system is aesthetically pleasing to the eye because there is only one straight channel in the floor, slightly wider than a floor expansion joint. The single slot profile blends in neatly with surface materials while providing an effective solution to surface water drainage. The drain system’s clean, crisp lines are suitable for a wide variety of residential and commercial applications.
Functions & Features Cleaning The u-shaped, single-slotted drain becomes a self-cleaning drainage system because of its pre-engineered slope. However, it can be cleaned out manually in a variety of ways. A drain cleaning paddle which often comes standard with every installation is shaped to fit the bottom of the slot drain. To restore proper water flow, the paddle is inserted sideways into the slot and given half a turn before being dragged along the drain to remove any dirt and debris. Another common way to clean out a u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system is to attach a custom flush valve to the closed end (½” standard) of the system. The flush valve may be set to turn on automatically with timers or turned on manually in order to flush the system and remove any sediment or contaminants. A pressure washer may also be used to clean out the system. Simply slide the nozzle in one end and run it the length of the drain.
Functions & Features Flow To determine the rate of flow and flow capacities of one model of a u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated trench drain system, some tests were performed by the Faculty of Engineering (civil engineering department) at the University of Manitoba. The following test conditions were used: All tests were conducted in a 50 ft. hydraulic flume, and The tests were performed using a 2 ft. length of slot drain, with sheet flow from both sides over an unfinished plywood surface with a set of a slope approx. ¼” per foot. Additional notes The performance of a slotted drain is related to the surface characteristics of the material used to convey the water to the drain. For relatively long lengths of slotted drain, the ultimate capacity of the system will be governed by the capacity of the channel used to convey the flow. Additional capacity could be obtained by surcharging the slotted drain; this was not done during the tests. Test results The computed flow capacity of a 1” (commercial) slot opening was 0.040 ft/s or 18 gallons per minute (per foot of slot). The computed flow capacity of a ½” (residential) slot opening was 0.026 ft/s or 11.4 gallons per minute (per foot of slot).
Functions & Features Structural Capabilities The structural capabilities of the drain system are in direct relation to the strength of the concrete the u-shaped, single-slotted drain is set in. The u-shaped, single-slotted drain is engineered in such a way that, through the breaks in the walls of the drain, the weight load is channeled through the u-shaped drain and into the concrete floor. This is provided that the u-shaped drain is properly secured into the rebar grid, and the proper amount of concrete is around and under the u-shaped, single-slotted drain system. The structural capabilities of a u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system make it especially suited for heavy, high traffic applications, such as airports, parkades, warehouses, and truck and rail loading docks. The system is also structurally sound enough to support not only crossing traffic, but lateral crossings as well. Direct loads parked on top of the drain will not “crush in” the u-shaped drain because it is supported by the surrounding concrete.
Functions & Features Durability A stainless steel u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system is sanitary and durable, making it an ideal system for the food and beverage industry or facilities with stringent sanitary regulations. The only parts of the drain exposed are the surface angles, which are made of stainless steel, making it easy to scrub down and sanitize. Since there is no grating, there are no components to break, bend, or trap bacteria. In addition, because the structural capabilities are the same as the strength of the encasing concrete, consideration of machinery placement is not limited by the placement of the u-shaped, single-slotted drain system.
Applications Overview A u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system can be incorporated into many applications, anywhere that water or liquids need to be moved quickly and efficiently. The drain system is a custom product, designed to meet the specific needs of each drainage configuration. Adaptations and upgrades are made to accommodate issues related to depth or flow requirements, drain length, and handling of process water. By modifying the system to handle process water, it saves both time and money by eliminating extra trenching, piping and backfilling. U-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain systems may be installed in: car washes farm shops car dealerships food processing plants parking lots airport tarmacs municipal buildings ambulance bays aircraft hangars gas stations fire halls, and any area requiring drainage.
Applications Commercial Applications A commercial grade, u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system may be available as 16-gauge, hot dipped galvanized or stainless steel, in three meter (3m = 9’ 10”) sections that are pre-sloped .05% (½”). Un-sloped 5’, 3’, and 1’ sections are used for extending along short distances. The system begins with an “end” section (one with a sealed end) which slopes towards a sump pit (collector pit). Sloped sections are inserted to lengthen the drain to the required length. Each section has a coupling flange welded to it that is alphabetically coded to the depth of that end of section, i.e. a “B-C” section would start with a “B” flange, and over the course of the section it drops ½” and ends with a “C” flange. The next connecting piece would start with a “C” flange and slope towards a “D” flange at the other end. The flanges are bolted together in a four-bolt pattern.
Applications Example: Commercial Application Starting with the end capped section (EA = End – A), 120’ of continuous one-way slope is available. If the application is longer that 120’, supplementary neutral 3-meter sections are fitted in to lengthen the drain (these sections will have the same end flanges, i.e. “C-C”).
Applications Commercial System Features Rebar tie-ins Alongside the trench, every 24”, an 8” rebar section is welded, bent out 3” from the side of the trench. This allows for a proper tie into the rebar grid in the concrete, as well as a place to tie the heat pipe. Leveling brackets Leveling bracket mounts are welded into place, and leveling brackets are bolted onto the side of the trench to ensure proper leveling of the drain. A rebar length, dependent on the thickness of the slab, is pounded into the ground through a slot in the bracket. Once the rebar is firm and below the top of pour, the bracket’s set screw is ready for tightening. This system allows for quick placement and leveling done with minimal manpower. These brackets support either 10mm or 15mm rebar. Flush valves Flush valves can be added to the drain ends, with time control in order to automatically flush the system when needed. Most car washes install flush valves, and hook them up to a timer and a sump pump located in the pit. This configuration ensures the drain system cleans itself, reusing/recycling its own water.
Applications Commercial System Features Sump pit alternatives Not all applications require that a sump pit be placed at the end of the drain line. By custom fitting, an end cap direct flow pipe can be placed to drain liquid directly from the slot drain into a pipe drain. End caps are available for all flange types with 4.5” OD stubs for easy tie into ABS lines with furnco fittings. Sump pits A u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated trench system bolts directly to a sump pit. The pits are available in a variety of designs. The volume of liquid being moved is the most important factor to consider when selecting a sump pit design.
Applications Commercial System Features Sump pits A deep, single inlet sump (i.e. 18” x 18” x 24”), may have a checker-plated lid, as well as a silt basket. The silt basket, also made of galvanized or stainless steel, is used for quick removal of debris, as well as acting as a screen to the out-take line. A single inlet style of sump connects one line of the u-shaped drain and contains a drain exit pipe. A 120’ continuous flow drain can be connected to a single inlet sump, and by inserting a three-meter neutral section, it can be extended to 150’. Lids may not always be “standard” on larger sump pits (i.e. 24” x 24” x 2” or 36” x 36” x 36”), although checker-plated or grated lids may be offered as options. Silt baskets are not standard either; however, they are often included due to the vast amount of labor it saves the user in not having to dig it out. Custom sizing to accommodate larger volumes of liquid is available. Checker-plated lids (shown left) are used in the vast majority of applications since they are strong enough to support road vehicles and forklifts. For applications that require more substantial load-bearing abilities, a grated sump pit lid (shown right) cover is recommended. Grated sump pit lid covers are often used in heavy machine shops or in high flow situations such as car washes or in storm drain applications. The checker-plated lids are lighter, and by that virtue, a less expensive alternative.
Applications Commercial System Features Sump pits Sump pits are fitted with an “L” flange mounted on the intake, and an adaptor plate is bolted to the corresponding mounting end of the drain section. The adaptor plate has the outside diameter of the “L” flange and the corresponding inside diameter of the end of the drain section. All flanges are laser cut for easy matching and assembly. Sumps may be available as duel inlet standard formats as well. A duel inlet can support up to 300’ of drain. This length allows for simplified concrete pours, creating the need for only a two-slope pour. Oil separator pits Many sump sizes are available with oil separation catch pits. In these configurations, the pit attached to the u-shaped, single-slotted drain contains the solids and the oil. A secondary pit is the overflow, where mostly clean water collects and is then discharged to sanitary/sewer pipes. It works like a skimmer: oil floats to the top and water flows through the elbow which is in the initial sump pit.
Applications Residential Applications Sharing the same features of a commercial drain system, u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain systems are also available for residential applications. The standard 60” (5’) lengths of a residential system are not pre-sloped, and shorter sections may be available upon request. This drain system renders the four-slope floor obsolete. Two simple slopes to the u-shaped, single-slotted drain is all that is required. The residential system comes with a standard, ADA compliant, ½” slot opening which can handle anything from snow melt to washing a car indoors. Sump pits As seen in the diagram, a 12” x 12” x 12” sump pit with a checker-plated lid is used in a residential application; however, larger sizes are available. Consult individual manufacturers. Sumps may also be available in single or duel inlet formats, and in many residential situations, the u-shaped, single-slotted drain is run directly through a PVC pipe directly to sanitary/sewer lines or directed outside to natural drainage.
Installation Factory-Ready U-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain systems arrive at the site in sections, factory-ready for bolting together. The following slides provide an overview of the simple, nine-step installation process. Easy Installation Compared to other drain systems, the manpower required for set up and pouring of the concrete slab around it is reduced. Because it is possible to cover a surface area from one side to the other, a contractor is able to work with a two-slope pour, with the added benefit of pouring a much less aggressive slope (results in a more level floor). In addition, it is possible to slope 360 degrees around the sump pits. When installing a u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system inside a garage or machine shop, the drain system is traditionally started 10’ from either wall. Residential applications are generally custom designs, to allow for the size of the garage.
Installation Installation: New Construction Step 1 Excavate a trench allowing room underneath and on both sides of the u-shaped drain. There should be a minimum of 6” of concrete surrounding the drain. Step 2 It is recommended to pre-pour a concrete pad underneath the sump pit so it can be properly secured. If no pad is poured, peg the sump pit down (using peg mounting brackets welded to the sides of the sump) before the u-shaped drain is connected.
Installation Installation: New Construction Step 3 Install all sump pits and PVC piping, making sure that the sump pit walls are reinforced to prevent sidewall bowing. Step 4 Bolt the last, deepest, section of the u-shaped drain to the sump pit. If a sump pit is not being used, secure the deepest section against the forming. Step 5 Bolt all remaining sections of the u-shaped drain together using the lettered flanges as a guide. For example, section “End-A” bolts to “A-B” and “A-B” bolts to “B-C”, etc.
Installation Installation: New Construction Step 6 Fasten the mounting brackets at marked intervals along the drain using the hardware supplied by the manufacturer. With the rebar running through the conduit portion of the mounting brackets, pound the appropriate length of rebar into the base material. When the correct levels are achieved, tighten the set bolts on the mounting brackets to secure the drain into place. Securing in the u-shaped drain through the base allows a contractor the ability to use the top as a screed edge to perfect the slope of the concrete. Step 7 Once the u-shaped drain is secured to the mounting brackets and the appropriate floor height is found, for structural support, tie the rebar from the floor grid into the rebar on the drain assembly. Cover the opening with duct tape, or insert Styrofoam if needed.
Installation Installation: New Construction Step 8 To ensure that the u-shaped drain will not float, it is recommended that the concrete be poured in two stages. The first concrete pour should adhere to a manufacturer’s warning stickers on the side of the drain assembly. Once adequate time for the first concrete pour to set has elapsed, the floor slab can be completed. The use of a pencil vibrator is strongly recommended to make sure that the concrete has completely surrounded the u-shaped drain, leaving no bubbles or voids. Step 9 Once the concrete slab is firm, first remove the tape or Styrofoam from the slot, then break out all metal tabs with a steel bar to ensure a continuous open slot. Using the paddle, clean out the u-shaped drain and sump pit.
Installation Retrofitting: New Drain, Existing Floors Retrofitting a u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system into existing floors can be done by completing the following steps: Mark out the desired location of the drain (including sump pit), allowing for 6”-8” of concrete along either side of the drain (note: review heat pipe grid map before cutting into a heated floor). Remove existing concrete. Install u-shaped drain system as per a new installation. Important: Dowel into either side of the exposed slab face every 8”-12” to tie the u-shaped drain into the existing rebar grid. Because this drain system contains its own slope, it can be poured into place level with the existing floor. In addition, because this drain system is supported off the base, a contractor is able to use the u-shaped drain as a screed to maintain slope (or level if a non-sloped floor). Retrofitting: Replace Existing Drain System Retrofitting a u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drain system to replace an existing drain system can be done in two ways. First, if placing the drain system into a new location, reference the new drain retrofit steps on the previous slide. If working with the existing drain system, the task may be as simple as removing old grates and filling the area with concrete. If the retrofit is a complete replacement of a grated drain system, follow the following steps: Remove grates, and if possible, the walls of the existing trench drain. If removal of all the existing trench drain system is feasible, the new drain installation steps should be followed. Check to ensure there is 6”-8” of space on either side of the u-shaped drain, and remove any offending concrete before final placement of the drain. Important: Doweling into the sides of the exposed concrete slab is paramount to the strength of the floor and u-shaped drain system. If it is not possible to remove the existing drain walls, and the existing trench is deep enough, place the u-shaped drain inside the existing trench, secure it to desired level, and simply pour into place.
Conclusion In comparison to traditional, slotted trench drain systems, u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated trench drain systems offer advantages in both function and aesthetics. The simple, aesthetically-pleasing, single channel provides an efficient drainage system for a variety of applications, from outdoor drainage to indoor showrooms. The durable drain system is both easy to install and maintain and meets the structural load-bearing requirements of even heavy traffic applications.
Thank you for your time. Questions? This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course. Closing remarks…….
<ul><li>Norstar Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Box 119, R.R. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Morris, MB R0G 1K0 </li></ul><ul><li>Course Number: XXXXXX </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Units: 1.00 </li></ul>U-Shaped, Non-Grated, Pre-Engineered Trench Drains Norstar Industries is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited.
<ul><li>At the end of this program, participants will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the evolution of surface methods of drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the functional features of u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated trench drain systems and compare them to those of other trench drain systems </li></ul><ul><li>Identify trench drain system components </li></ul><ul><li>Describe design considerations and installation requirements </li></ul>Learning Objectives
<ul><li>As construction materials evolved, simple ditches gave way to cast-in-place, pre-cast concrete, corrugated slot drains, polymer concrete trenches, fiberglass trench drains, pre-engineered HDPE, and LLDPE grated slot drains </li></ul>Brief History of Drainage Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage
<ul><li>Single slot-style mouth on top of a formed, u-shaped base </li></ul><ul><li>No grate required </li></ul><ul><li>Low maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitary </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul>Non-Grated, U-Shaped, Single-Slotted Drains Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage
<ul><li>Fiberglass </li></ul><ul><li>HDPE (high-density polyethylene) </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless steel and galvanized metal </li></ul>Drain Materials Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage
<ul><li>Grated, u-shaped drains average $60-70 per lineal foot (include replacement grates at $15-20 per lineal foot) </li></ul><ul><li>Galvanized u-shaped, single-slotted, non-grated drains average $40 per lineal foot </li></ul>Cost Comparison Surface & Floor Methods of Drainage
<ul><li>One straight channel with a single slot profile blends neatly with surrounding surface materials </li></ul><ul><li>Clean, crisp lines make it suitable for a variety of applications </li></ul>Aesthetics Functions & Features
<ul><li>Pre-engineered slope makes it a self-cleaning system </li></ul><ul><li>Can be cleaning manually using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drain cleaning paddle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>custom flush valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure washer </li></ul></ul>Cleaning Functions & Features
<ul><li>Test results, as determined by the Faculty of Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>(civil engineering department) at the University of Manitoba </li></ul><ul><li>The computed flow capacity of a 1” (commercial) slot opening was 0.040 ft/s or 18 gallons per minute (per foot of slot) </li></ul><ul><li>The computed flow capacity of a ½” (residential) slot opening was 0.026 ft/s or 11.4 gallons per minute (per foot of slot) </li></ul>Flow Functions & Features
<ul><li>Structural capabilities are in direct relation to the strength of the surrounding concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Weight load is channeled through the u-shaped drain and into the concrete floor </li></ul>Structural Capabilities Functions & Features
<ul><li>Used in facilities with stringent sanitary regulations (food and beverage industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Durable, easy to clean </li></ul><ul><li>No grates – no components that break </li></ul><ul><li>Machine placement is not limited by drain placement </li></ul>Durability Functions & Features
<ul><li>A commercial grade system may be available as 16-gauge, hot dipped galvanized or stainless steel, in three meter (3m = 9’ 10”) sections that are pre-sloped .05% (½”) </li></ul>Commercial Applications Applications
<ul><li>Components of drain system arrive at the site in sections, factory-ready, for bolting together </li></ul>Factory-Ready Installation
<ul><li>Step 1 Excavate a trench </li></ul>Installation: New Construction Installation <ul><li>Step 2 Pre-pour concrete pad </li></ul>
<ul><li>Step 3 Install sump pits </li></ul>Installation: New Construction Installation <ul><li>Step 4 Secure deepest section </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5 Bolt sections together </li></ul>
<ul><li>Step 6 Fasten mounting brackets </li></ul>Installation: New Construction Installation <ul><li>Step 7 Tie the rebar </li></ul>
<ul><li>Step 8 Two concrete pours </li></ul>Installation: New Construction Installation <ul><li>Step 9 Clean the drain system </li></ul>
<ul><li>New Drain, Existing Floors </li></ul><ul><li>Mark out desired location of new drain and remove existing drain </li></ul><ul><li>Follow steps for a new installation – dowel into either side of exposed slab </li></ul><ul><li>Replace Existing Drain System </li></ul><ul><li>Remove grates and walls of existing trench drain, and follow steps for a new installation </li></ul><ul><li>If existing drain walls cannot be removed, and the existing trench is deep enough, place new drain inside the trench, secure to desired level, and pour into place </li></ul>Retrofitting Installation
<ul><li>Single channel provides efficient drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetically pleasing </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitary and durable </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to install and maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Meets structural load-bearing requirements for even heavy traffic applications </li></ul>Conclusion Conclusion
<ul><li>In order to maintain high-quality learning experiences, please access the evaluation for this course by logging into CES Discovery and clicking on the Course Evaluation link on the left side of the page. </li></ul>Course Evaluations Section Title
Questions? This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course www.u-drain.ca Thank you for your time.