Knowledge SPA IBS Seminar Series

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SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES – USERS’ AWARENESS OF PRIVACY MEASURES, PRIVACY FEATURES USE AND INFORMATION PRIVACY CONCERN Presented at Knowledge SPA IBS Seminar Series
8 Feb. 2012. Best Paper Award at the International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information
Systems 23 - 24 November, 2011. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Knowledge SPA IBS Seminar Series

  1. 1. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES – USERS’ AWARENESS OF PRIVACY MEASURES, PRIVACY FEATURES USE AND INFORMATION PRIVACY CONCERN Norshidah Mohamed1 Ili Hawa Ahmad2 norshidah@ic.utm.my http://www.ibs.utm.my iIli_hawa@yahoo.com1 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA Knowledge SPA2 INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA IBS Seminar Series 8 Feb. 2012
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Overview • Introduction • Research questions • Review of literature • Gaps in the literature • Methodology • Findings • Conclusions & limitation 2
  3. 3. Revealing Bank Account on SocialNetworking Siteshttp://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/6/30/nation/8996725&sec=nation (accessed on 12 Dec, 2011) 3
  4. 4. Recognise the threats in Social NetworkingSites and protect our information privacy!http://techcentral.my/columns/industryviews/story.aspx?file=/2010/7/21/it_col_industryviews/20100721153614&sec=it_col_industryviews (accessed on 12 Dec 2011) 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION1. Social Networking Sites (SNS) are simple Websites that allow users to create personal profiles, list friends and browse through their friends’ list (Aquisti and Gross, 2006). Emerge out of Web 2.0 phenomenon.2. Examples - Facebook, MySpace, Friendster, Twitter etc.3. Youths are the biggest SNS community (ECAR Research Study, 2008). 5
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION ..CONT’4. Facebook is the most popular SNS (ECAR Research Study, 2008).5. In December 2010, Facebook has more that 500 million active users worldwide (retrieved from Facebook Webpage, 2010). Malaysia has the most Facebook users in Southeast Asia (The Star, 2010).6. Facebook is the most popular visited Website in November 2010 as reported in Malaysian Digital Association (MDA). 6
  7. 7. RESEARCH QUESTIONS1. Is there a relationship between users’ awareness of privacy measures and privacy features use in SNS?2. Is there a significant difference in users’ information privacy concern with SNS between those who use privacy features in SNS and those who do not? 7
  8. 8. REVIEW OF LITERATURE1. Articles published between May 2010 and July 2010 on SNS suggest privacy issue dominates the discussion.2. Privacy is defined as “the right to be left alone”(Warren and Brandeis,1890).3. Information privacy – ‘‘the ability of the individual to personally control information about one’s self’’ (Smith et al., 2009) . 8
  9. 9. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ..CONT’4. Personal information privacy is individual’s ability to personally control his/her information that includes birth registration details, income, expenditure patterns, health records etc. (Lim et al. 2009).5. Younger respondents are likely to reveal their personal information through SNS (ECAR Research, 2008). 9
  10. 10. REVIEW OF LITERATURE..CONT’• Information privacy concerns refer to “the extent to which an individual is concerned about organisational practices related to the collection and use of his or her personal information” (Udo, 2011).• Privacy features are “technical implementation of privacy controls on Websites that enable user friendly profile control and set-up to encourage safe participation”(Tuunainen et al. 2009). 10
  11. 11. GAPS IN THELITERATURE• Not many prior studies linked information privacy concern to SNS• A lack of studies on SNS in the Malaysian contexts although Malaysia has the most Facebook users in S.E.A.• Many prior studies had examined information privacy concern in electronic commerce environment – only in the last two years SNS began to receive greater attention 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. METHODOLOGYCross-sectional survey research.Target respondents - undergraduate studentsfrom four Kulliyyahs in IIUM i.e. KICT, KIRKHS,KENMS and KENG in the IIUM.Cluster sampling technique. Selection ofelements based on class schedule of aparticular semester. 13
  14. 14. METHODOLOGY .. CONT’A total of 413 questionnaires were distributed. Atotal number of 345 respondents returned thequestionnaires and 340 were used for analysis.SPSS Version 16 used for data analysis.Data analysis used in this research:• Descriptive analysis• Cross-tabulation - chi-square test• Independent samples t-test 14
  15. 15. FINDINGS1. The first research question: Is there a relationship between users’ awareness of privacy measures and privacy features use in SNS? TABLE 1: AWARENESS OF PRIVACY MEASURES Aware? Frequency Percentage No 26 7.6 Yes 314 92.4 Observation: There is a majority of users who are aware of privacy measures TABLE 2: USE OF PRIVACY FEATURES IN SNS Privacy features Frequency Percentage use? No 36 10.6 Yes 304 89.4 Observation: There is a majority of users who use privacy features in SNS. 15
  16. 16. FINDINGS ..CONT’ TABLE 3: PRIVACY MEASURES AWARENESS AND USE CONTINGENCY TABLE TABLE 4. PRIVACY MEASURES AWARENESS AND USE CHI-SQUARE TEST Asymp. Sig. Exact Sig. Exact Sig. Value df (2-sided) (2-sided) (1-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 77.196a 1 .000 Continuity 71.479 1 .000 Correctionb Likelihood Ratio 46.226 1 .000 Fishers Exact Test .000 .000 Linear-by-Linear 76.969 1 .000 Association N of Valid Casesb 340 16
  17. 17. FINDINGS .. CONT’ TABLE 5: PRIVACY MEASURES AWARENESS AND USE PHI (φ) TEST φ 17
  18. 18. FINDINGS ..CONT’1. Is there a relationship between users’ awareness of privacy measures and privacy features use in SNS?Users who were aware of the existence ofprivacy measures in SNS would use theprivacy features to protect their privacy.X2(1, N=340) = 77.196; p<0.05Phi (φ) test value (Table 5) is 0.476(p<0.05). 18
  19. 19. FINDINGS .. CONT’2. The second research question: Is there a significant difference in users’ information privacy concern between those who use privacy setting measures in SNS and those who do not? TABLE 6: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS INFORMATION PRIVACY CONCERN MEASURES Information Privacy Concern Items 1 2 3 4 5I am concerned about submitting my personal information in 2 10 69 87 172SNS because of what others might do with it. 0.6% 2.9% 20.3% 25.6% 50.6%I am concerned about submitting my personal information in 3 6 64 103 164SNS because it could be used in a way I did not foresee. 0.9% 1.8% 18.8% 30.3% 48.2%When I am online through SNS, I have the feeling of being 7 35 115 122 61watched. 2.1% 10.3% 33.8% 35.9 17.9%When I am online through SNS, I have the feeling that all 2 37 110 109 81my clicks and actions are being tracked and monitored. 0.6% 10.9% 32. 4% 32.1% 23.8%1: Strongly Disagree 5: Strongly agree 19
  20. 20. FINDINGS .. CONT’ TABLE 7: INDEPENDENT SAMPLES T-TEST Use N Mean Std S.E t- value df Sig. 2- privacy IPC Dev mean tailed features No 35 3.59 0.62 0.10 -2.93 337 .004 Yes 304 3.97 0.73 0.042. The second research question: Is there a significant difference in users’ information privacy concern between those who use privacy features in SNS and those who do not?There is a significant difference in information privacyconcern between those who used privacy features andthose who did not use it in SNS. Users who were moreconcerned with information privacy would use the privacyfeatures in SNS. 20
  21. 21. CONCLUSIONS &LIMITATIONS1. In terms of theory, the research has contributed to knowledge on the importance of creating awareness among SNS users in privacy measures and, use of privacy features in SNS. With awareness, users will be more concerned about their information privacy concern and take the necessary actions to protect it. 21
  22. 22. CONCLUSIONS &LIMITATIONS .. CONT’2. In terms of practice, computing educational programs including basic information technology courses need to incorporate issues of privacy in SNS in its curricula and means to mitigate risks of losing information privacy through proper user control. Lab curriculum design may include practical aspects like the application of SNS privacy features. 22
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS &LIMITATIONS .. CONT’• The research used cross-sectional approach. It did not capture temporal aspect.• Further, as only undergraduates from a particular university participated in the research, the findings may not be generalised in the context of the entire social networking sites users and thus may have to be carefully interpreted. 23
  24. 24. CONCLUSIONS &LIMITATIONS .. CONT’• Future research may consider longitudinal approach and other demographic segment of social networking sites users (school children, business operators etc.) as research participants. 24

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