Impact of Entrepreneurship Training

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Great discussion this year at the Babson Entrepreneurship Research Conference

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Impact of Entrepreneurship Training

  1. 1. Revisiting the Cognitive Developmental Trajectory of Entrepreneurship... ...The Role of Critical Developmental Experiences ...and the REAL question? Norris Krueger ( [email_address] ; @entrep_thinking) Helle Neergaard (Aarhus; hen@asb.dk) BCERC 2011
  2. 2. Key Questions? <ul><li>If we want to understand how we learn to think like entrepreneurs, don't we need to know... </li></ul><ul><li>What IS this “entrepreneurial” mindset anyway? </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptually? </li></ul><ul><li>Measurably? </li></ul><ul><li>Concisely & robustly measurable? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Mechanisms <ul><li>What truly induces transformative learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Key developmental experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>What do entrepreneurship classes actually do ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two Ways to Learn Behavioristic - fill the bucket -define the buckets Constructivistic - light the fire (or fan it!) - assume knowledge structures evolve (often discontinuously)
  5. 5. Novice Expert Entrepreneurial Mindset Critical Developmental Experiences Change in what we know (content) Change in how we know it (knowledge structures) Change in Deep Beliefs
  6. 6. A little background <ul><li>Is it about intentions? If not.. what else? </li></ul>Perceived Social Norms Personal Desirability Perceived Self-Efficacy Perceived Collective Efficacy Perceived Desirability Perceived Feasibility INTENTIONS Precipitating Event PERCEPTION of OPPORTUNITY Action
  7. 7. A little background, part 2 <ul><li>Informed Intent? </li></ul><ul><li>Expert intent?? </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential! </li></ul>
  8. 8. BILDUNGS-BRANDSTIFTER? Novice Expert Entrepreneurial Mindset Critical Developmental Experiences Change in what we know (content) Change in how we know it (knowledge structures) Change in Deep Beliefs
  9. 9. A little background, part 3 <ul><li>Have we really nailed down what “entrepreneurial mindset” looks like? </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds like? </li></ul><ul><li>(Smells like?) </li></ul><ul><li>But maybe a few thoughts... </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thoughts? Which are the hardest to change? (More important for here... what can we measure?) <ul><li>* Seeing opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>* Seeing self as entrepreneur (role identity) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Dot-connecting / pattern recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Effectual thinking (bricolage, improv) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimist (attributional) </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Counterfactual thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Bias for action (vs. FoF!) </li></ul><ul><li>Value creation as sine qua non ( Market-pull?) </li></ul>
  11. 11. So what IS this “entrepreneurial mindset” anyway?? <ul><li>Thoughts? Which are the hardest to change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(More important for here... what can we measure?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seeing opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing self as entrepreneur (role identity) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Dot-connecting / pattern recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Effectual thinking (bricolage, improv) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimist (attributional) </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Counterfactual thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Bias for action (vs. FoF!) </li></ul><ul><li>Value creation as sine qua non ( Market-pull?) </li></ul>
  12. 12. A little background, part 4 <ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing opportunities; Acting on opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intent and... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>its correlates (PF, PD, SN, self-efficacy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimism (a la Seligman) </li></ul><ul><li>Expert script? </li></ul><ul><li>Role Identity / Mental Prototypes </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ concise, robust”... <ul><li>Opportunities presented for ALL of us </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential >> Non-experiential </li></ul><ul><li>So how would YOU assess impact? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Research Design <ul><li>Pre / post </li></ul><ul><li>1-day full-immersion 'boot camp' experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Assess impact: Intense events; Key measures </li></ul><ul><li>Intent (intent, correlates) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism (“What's the One Thing... ?”) </li></ul><ul><li>Script cues </li></ul><ul><li>Role Id </li></ul>
  15. 15. Measures <ul><li>Intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intent, correlates (PD, PF, SN) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>content analyze “What's the One Thing... ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Script cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short version of Mitchell's 'cue' instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role Identity / Mental Prototype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Draw me a picture...” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sample & Hurdles <ul><li>Two boot camps (PI not presenting), N =20, 24 </li></ul><ul><li>28 M, 16 F </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly mid-20s, predominantly non-minority </li></ul><ul><li>Intent, optimism, administered pre/post </li></ul><ul><li>Script measure pre or post </li></ul><ul><li>Picture pre or post plus change </li></ul>
  17. 17. Intent (Changes in) PRE POST Intent (0-100) 54 56 (women only) 56 63 Perceived Feasibility 58 63 Perceived Desirability 69 72 (ns) (std dev) 11.0 17.7 Social Norms 44 53 (n.s.)
  18. 18. Optimism (Seligman-style) PRE POST B/F Barrier ? Facilitator Barrier ? Facilitator 21 11 12 19 10 15 E vs I? External ? Internal External ? Internal 22 9 13 19 8 17
  19. 19. Script Cues PRE POST 5/12 7/12
  20. 20. Pictures <ul><li>Still W-I-P </li></ul><ul><li>Techies can't draw? ;) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-described changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ More me” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ More specific AND more inclusive” </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions/Discussions <ul><li>Immersion events appear to change mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Measures are promising but need work </li></ul><ul><li>Need to check back for stickiness </li></ul><ul><li>Other experiential exercises </li></ul><ul><li>NON-experiential activities, even“anti-experiential”? ;) </li></ul><ul><li>What have I missed?? </li></ul><ul><li>Again... how would YOU measure mindset change? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Triangulation and MORE Opportunities <ul><li>ISEEO – experimental approach </li></ul><ul><li>GUESSS –-> N > 86,000? </li></ul><ul><li>Neergaard - action research </li></ul><ul><li>+ GEW </li></ul><ul><li>TED-ED?? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Contact info <ul><li>Norris Krueger </li></ul><ul><li>( [email_address] ; </li></ul><ul><li>@entrep_thinking) </li></ul><ul><li>Helle Neergaard </li></ul><ul><li>( [email_address] ) </li></ul><ul><li>plus Facebook, LinkedIn </li></ul>
  24. 24. YES NO LOGIN    /    REGISTER www.StartupWeekend.org http://globalstartupbattle.com/wildcard/
  25. 25. This is your brain on unfairness (ultimatum game?)

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