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Physiology of autonomic nervous system


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ANS divisions, distribution, receptors, functions, and autonomic drugs

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Physiology of autonomic nervous system

  1. 1. Autonomic Nervous System Nermeen Bastawy Physiology Department Faculty of Medicine Cairo University
  2. 2. Central nervous system (brain & spinal cord) Peripheral nervous system Somatic or Voluntary Autonomic or Involuntary Sympathetic Parasympathetic Cardiac& smooth ms, glands skeletal ms
  3. 3. Brain Origin s 1 8
  4. 4. Somatic # ANS motor
  5. 5. SOMATIC # AUTONOMIC <ul><li>AUTONOMIC NERVES </li></ul><ul><li> Smooth & cardiac ms </li></ul><ul><li>Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>From LHCs </li></ul><ul><li>NT: Ach, catecholamine </li></ul><ul><li>Pre G myelinated B </li></ul><ul><li>Post G unmyelinated C </li></ul><ul><li>SOMATIC NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>sk. ms. </li></ul><ul><li>NO GANGLIA . </li></ul><ul><li>AHCs </li></ul><ul><li>NT : ACh </li></ul><ul><li>Myelinated A fibers. </li></ul>13/07/2010
  6. 6. Types of ganglia Cranial nerves Spinal cord Terminal Collatral Para vertebral Adrenal gland
  7. 7. ANS <ul><li>Sympathetic NS  stress : </li></ul><ul><li>-“Fight or flight” </li></ul><ul><li>-“E” division:exercise,emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic  rest: </li></ul><ul><li>-Maintain normal functions </li></ul><ul><li>-“D” division: digestion, </li></ul><ul><li>defecation, and diuresis. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Horner syndrome
  9. 12. NA A
  10. 13. 13/07/2010 Symp. Thoracolumber T1  L3 Craniosacral 1973, S2,3,4 Ganglia away from organs Ganglia near to organs Long postgang. Short postgang . NA, Ach Ach Parasym.
  11. 14. Contraction. No innervation Eye(Muller ms) Mydriasis. Myosis. Eye (Iris) Piloerection No innervation Hair follicles ++ sweating No innervation Sweat Glands Mucous sec. Watery sec. Salivary Gland No innervation . Contraction. Eye (Ciliary ms) Symp. Parasymp ANS H & N
  12. 15. Retension. Urination & defecation UB& rectum -- peristalsis, secretion. ++ peristalsis, secretion & bile. GIT ++ HR & force VD coronary - - - HR. VC coronary Heart Ejaculation. Erection Genetalia Bronchodil. Bronchoconst. Lungs Symp Parasymp. Target Organ
  13. 16. Increases metabolic rate. No effect. Cellular Metabolism Releases the enzyme renin which acts to increase BP. No innervation. Kidney Stimulates fat breakdown. No effect. Adipose Tissue Increases coagulation rate. No effect. Blood Coagulation Vaginal reverse peristalsis. Vasodilation. Erection. Vagina; Clitoris Smooth muscle contraction. Ejaculation. Vasodilates penile arteries. Erection. Penis Sympathetic Effects Parasympathetic Effects Target Organ
  14. 17. Inhibits insulin secretion. Stimulates insulin secretion. Endocrine Pancreas Increases alertness. No innervation. Mental Activity Depends on stage of the cycle. Depends on stage of the cycle. Uterus Constricts most blood vessels and increases BP. Exception – dilates blood vessels serving skeletal muscle fibers (cholinergic). Little effect. Blood Vessels Sympathetic Effects Parasympathetic Effects Target Organ
  15. 18. Medulla oblongata III Ciliary ganglion Ciliary muscle, circular muscles of iris VII Lacrimal gland Sphenopalatine ganglion Submaxillary and sublingual gland Submaxillary ganglion IX Parotid gland Otic ganglion X Heart,lung, intestine Nervi irrigantis Kidney, bladder, colon and genitals Pelvic ganglion Cervical Lumber Sacral Thoracic
  16. 19. Cervical T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 L2 L3 Thorax H & N CG CG ,SMG GIT , liver , spleen & adrenal gland IMG Genitals Heart,
  17. 20. <ul><li>Ach : </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers  cholinergic F </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors  cholinergic R </li></ul><ul><li>NA : </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers  adrenergic F </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors  adrenergic R </li></ul>
  18. 21. Sweet G Bl.V Pre G Post G Ch R Ch R XXX XXX XXX XXX Ch R Ad R
  19. 22. ANS SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPATHETIC SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACh adrenal medula NA & A in blood ACh NA ACh ACh Bl.V sweat glands MANY ORGANS ACh ACh ACh Nm skeletal muscles N N N N N N N N N N MANY ORGANS
  20. 23. AP  Ca++  Exocytosis Release Reuptake MAO/COMT Ach esterase Remove Dark vesicle Clear vesicle Storage Dopamine Choline+Acetyle-COA Source Nerve knobs Adrenal G Nerve Knobs Sites NA ACh
  21. 24. Decarboxylase PNMT adrenal gland in liver
  22. 26. Cholinergic R Central = Nicotinic R Periphral = Muscarinic R
  23. 28. a B B a
  24. 31. Autonomic drugs Parasympatho- lytic Parasympatho- mimetic Sympatho lytic Sympatho- mimetic Ganglionic --- Ganglionic +++ - - - - - ++++
  25. 32. Sympathetic drugs Guanethidine Reserpine Methyldopa Ephedrine Amphetamine Tyramine NT Phentolamine Propranolol A, NA A, ISP Alpha R Beta R NLD TEA NSD Antich.esterase Ganglia Sympatholytic - - - - - Sympathomimetic ++++
  26. 34. Parasympathetic drugs Atropine Homatropine Antich.esterase Muscarine Pilocarpine Metacholine Muscarinic R NLD TEA NSD Antich.esterase Ganglia PS-lytic - - - PS-mimetic +++