Discuss the three elements of class management;
Distinguish between discipline and punishment;
Differentiate between event and daily schedule;
Explain the importance of consistency in discipline and
punishment in class management for both genders;
5. Discuss the importance of teacher-child ratio in class
6. Select the materials and equipment for effective class
7. Discuss the importance of setting up the physical
environment in relation to the ages and needs of the
GUIDE TO CLASS MANAGEMENT
• A few important elements like space, gender
and teacher-child ratio should always be
considered. Some basic rules must be
followed in order to facilitate children’s
exploration and prevent any major behaviour
• Let them make small mistakes and experience
slight disappointments. It is part of their
learning experience. However, before you let
them solve their own problems, you should:
1.Teach the child how they could solve the
2.Watch them solve the problem; and
3.Stay close by, in case they need help.
The Distinction Between Discipline
• It is important to differentiate between
discipline and punishment. To discipline is to
help a child change an impulsive behaviour
into a purposeful behaviour.
• Punishment emphasises on what the child
should not repeat. It seldom helps the child
harness the energy within him into a
• To help a child change an impulsive
behaviour into a purposeful behaviour
• Emphasises on what the child should not
• Seldom helps the child harness the energy
within him into a productive behaviour.
• May even interfere with the learning process
because of the fear and resentment it
• Set a Good Example Be clear about what we expect
from them. In order to guide children toward
acceptable behaviours, we have to set the examples of
good behaviour. They tend to follow the behaviour of
models they love and respect.
Self Respect is Need for Self-control The child’s
feelings about him/herself are important. Children
who see themselves as worthless will not be motivated
to behave in an acceptable way. They need to respect
themselves in order to respect others.
In disciplining a child, we must be careful not to
humiliate a child and reduce his self-esteem. We must
also avoid using labels or threats. We must expect the
best of them, so that they will be inspired to be the
best they can be.
• Be Reasonable The first step to being reasonable is to stop
being so perfect. Children will see you as a role model and
follow your example. Just set a good example and behave
the way you would like them to behave.
Always show the children that you care. Punishment is a
last resort. When you have to punish them, choose the
most reasonable form of punishment. Make sure they
understand why you are punishing them. Let them know
what the acceptable way to behave is.
The punishment should always be consistent and effective.
You should also learn to tell the difference between an
accident and a deliberate rule breaking. Change takes time.
Do not expect children to change overnight. To do so will
only torture them and stress you out. In order to be
reasonable, you need to rely on your wits as well as
How to state limits to children
Involve children in developing some limits in a classroom or other settings.
Tune in to what children are doing, help them focus on the task, and give
Speak naturally but slowly enough that a child hears the limit clearly.
Use concrete words and short sentences.
Use natural, normal sentences, e.g., “It’s time to put the teacups away.”
Tell a child exactly what to do, e.g., “Take small bites of your bread.”
Be as positive as possible.
Give choices when appropriate.
Give short, clear, fair reasons for limits.
Issue only one or two suggestions at a time.
Give children enough time to carry out the limit or to complete something
else before she carries out the limit.
Restate limits appropriately. Restate limits when it is necessary to restate
Be Gentle and Firm Children learn best when they
want to learn. Make sure they are focused, active and
most of all having fun. Being well-organised does not
mean you cannot have fun.
You should know the difference between being strict
and being mean. Strict teachers are able to discipline
their students effectively. It permits children to listen
out of respect. Mean teachers, on the other hand,
harm children emotionally. They make them feel
resentful and destroy their motivation to learn.
Always be aware of how you treat children when you are
angry with them. Try the following:
1. take a deep breath and calm down before you start telling
them why you are mad at their behaviour.
2. remind yourself you do not have to look or act angry to get
You can also use humour to discipline children. It breaks
the tension and is a good way to deal with stress.
However, do not tease or be too sarcastic. Most children
may not understand sarcasm and they might not even
know what they are doing wrong. Even worse, you might
only hurt their feelings, instead of teaching them
You do not have to be too strict with young children. In
fact, being too strict can work against you. Children will
consider you to be mean and grumpy. They will ignore
you and not take your advice seriously.
Guidelines for Effective Punishment
Start with a warning – You should not punish a child for making a mistake
right away. Tell them the rules. Warn them that if the rules are broken,
they would be punished. When you need to punish them, let them know
what is wrong and explain why before you punish them.
Set a beginning and an end – Tell them how long the punishment will last.
It should depend on how severe the mistake they made was.
Punish immediately – Do not punish them later. They may forget what
they did wrong and why they are being punished. There is also a risk of
forgetting to punish them.
Enforce the rule wherever your child is, when the misbehaviour occurs –
If the child misbehaves in public, make sure you can punish them by
taking them home.
Deliver the punishment in a calm tone – Using the right tone when you
punish them gives the impact that you are serious about it.
Be consistent – Impose the punishment every time that misbehaviour
Always acknowledge appropriate behaviour – tell them what they should
be doing and compliment them whenever they have behaved the proper
Effective and Ineffective Use of
• An incentive is a reward that is given to a child for behaving
appropriately. The difficult part is to know how often to
reward them and what type of reward is reasonable. If not
done properly, children will only behave the right way
when expecting a reward.
Some examples of the most common ineffective incentives
1. waiting too long to reward the child.
2. promising something that is inconvenient or expensive.
3. taking away a reward for behaving badly before the reward
4. rewarding something that is easily available to the child or
something the child already has.
• Time-out is a form of punishment that puts
distance between the child and the
misbehaviour for a certain length of time.
Time-out allows a child to sit alone quietly to
think about their misbehaviour. The time-out
should be in a quiet area with no access to a
television or computer. It can be on a mat, in a
chair, or in a separate room.
The time-out setting should be:
• safe; and
• as boring as possible.
Always identify one priority misbehavior.
Use a timer.
Remember to explain time-out to your child.
• Time-out is intended to improve behaviour;
• What time-out is;
• How the time works;
• How the timer works; and
• Describe the priority misbehaviour (give an example).
Use time-out as part of a plan.
Be consistent with time-out.
Stay calm when you use time-out.
Use a chart to keep a record of progress.
Initial episodes may be difficult (children may not follow the required time
For time-out to work,
• be consistent and persistent (always follow through and
stay calm and do not react in anger (some children
misbehave to get you angry, the punishment is outweighed
by the reward);
do not give the child too much attention when you use
time-out and do not let it distract you from other children
or responsibilities; and
always be positive about good behaviour (time-out does
not work on its own, its part of a plan).
Events and Daily Schedules
Know what will happen day by day
Physical set up
Build child’s confidence
Opportunities to play and carried out projects
A daily schedule can be divided into:
Large group time
Other routines built into the daily
• Arrival Children like to know what to expect when they arrive at
school. They like to know that you will be there to greet them and
expect them to greet you and proceed with free play or other
Snack/mealtime A mid-morning/afternoon snack for a
morning/afternoon group. They should also be a fixed point of time
when meal is served, preceded by toileting and washing and
followed by washing, when necessary.
Rest/nap time A short rest or quiet time before lunch or after
snack. A longer rest period after lunch is needed in the full-day
program. Children become short-tempered and quarrelsome when
they are tired. Rest/nap time allows them to calm down, remain
cheerful and recover their ability to absorb more learning
• Based on:
1.age of the children;
2.type of program activity;
3.inclusion of children with special needs;
4.time of day; and
5.other factors (inexperienced caretakers may
prefer to handle lesser children).
• Having the right teacher-child ratio is
necessary so that caretakers are able to:
1.Provide frequent personal contact;
2.Conduct meaningful learning activities;
3.Constantly supervise the children; and
4.Offer immediate care as needed (especially
during accidents or emergencies).
• Ratios are lowered when there are one or
more children who need additional adult
assistance due to:
1.developmental age and/or stage;
2.language fluency; or
3.level of ability.
• There can be some variation in group size and
ratios if the following criteria are good:
3.health and safety; and
Children with Special Needs
Avoid negative influence
Stimulate the to interact
Encourage them to talk
Friendship and respect
Materials and equipment
Materials and equipment are an important part of any class. They should
be safe, plentiful, age appropriate and in good condition. Safety is the
most important consideration when selecting toys. Use the following
1. To find out if it is appropriate for child use, refer to age labelling and read
2. all the warnings and safety messages on the packaging.
Children who are younger than three have a high risk of swallowing or
inhaling small parts. Keep toys with small balls, un-inflated balloons and
3. those with sharp points or rough edges away from these children.
Make sure that any teething toys are too large to fit completely in an
4. infant’s mouth.
Stuffed animals and cloth dolls should have sturdy, well-sewn seams. Any
decoration on the toys should be secure and not easily pulled or bitten
Music and movement centre
Dramatic play centre
Science and mathematics centre
Suitability – age-appropriate
Sturdy, durable and safe
Encouraging of collaboration and
• Acknowledging diversity
• Aeathetically pleasing
Setting up the environment
– Age- appropriateness
– Attractiveness - colorful, bright, inviting
Teachers should always take a look around at the overall
cleanliness of their environment. You should always take
into consideration the level of comfort in its cleanliness and
overall safety protocols. Here are a few things you should
1. the supervision ratio;
2. whether there is a security check-in and check-out in place
and if is it enforced;
3. whether it is well-ventilated, well-lit and at a comfortable
4. whether the toys are sanitised on a regular basis;
5. whether there are camera monitors; and
6. whether the outdoor play equipment is installed correctly.
Potential safety hazards in the outdoor
a lack of secure fences or boundaries;
poisonous plants and chemicals;
slides that catch children’s clothing, leading to strangulation;
excessively high equipment from which children can be
injured due to falls;
equipment that crushes or shears off body parts such as
inappropriate surfaces that do not absorb the impact of a
an overly hot environment due to lack of shade or too much
inadequate playground supervision; and
items that are worn or broken such as splintered climbers, or
rusty and sharp-edged play structures.
Well-organised spaces should:
1.have sufficient empty space;
2.be easily visible for the teacher to monitor all
children from any angle of the room. Low
room dividers that separate activity centres
make this possible;
3.allow ease of supervision; and
4.efficient placement of storage units.
Infant-Toddlers The physical environment in infant-toddler programs
should be arranged for their unique developmental needs.
Toddlers need environments that allow them to explore materials
and move about freely. The environment should also provide a
feeling of security and at the same time provide a wide range of
materials to play with.
Basic components of an infant-toddler environment include areas
Learning activities can be described in terms of individual and group
projects. The room can be arranged to provide for large projects
conducted to accomplish three types of activities:
• investigation activities
• dramatic play.
There are many ways to arrange the classroom into centres or areas.
The model described here uses:
the dramatic play centre;
the language centre;
the science and mathematics centre;
the art centre; and
the music and movement centre.