Topic 4 management


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Topic 4 management

  1. 1. Topic 4 - Management
  2. 2. Should be.. 1. 2. 3. 4. Discuss the three elements of class management; Distinguish between discipline and punishment; Differentiate between event and daily schedule; Explain the importance of consistency in discipline and punishment in class management for both genders; 5. Discuss the importance of teacher-child ratio in class management; 6. Select the materials and equipment for effective class management; and 7. Discuss the importance of setting up the physical environment in relation to the ages and needs of the children.
  3. 3. GUIDE TO CLASS MANAGEMENT • A few important elements like space, gender and teacher-child ratio should always be considered. Some basic rules must be followed in order to facilitate children’s exploration and prevent any major behaviour problems.
  4. 4. • Let them make small mistakes and experience slight disappointments. It is part of their learning experience. However, before you let them solve their own problems, you should: 1.Teach the child how they could solve the problem; 2.Watch them solve the problem; and 3.Stay close by, in case they need help.
  5. 5. The Distinction Between Discipline and Punishment • It is important to differentiate between discipline and punishment. To discipline is to help a child change an impulsive behaviour into a purposeful behaviour. • Punishment emphasises on what the child should not repeat. It seldom helps the child harness the energy within him into a productive behaviour.
  6. 6. Disipline • To help a child change an impulsive behaviour into a purposeful behaviour
  7. 7. Punishment • Emphasises on what the child should not repeat • Seldom helps the child harness the energy within him into a productive behaviour. • May even interfere with the learning process because of the fear and resentment it generates
  8. 8. • Set a Good Example Be clear about what we expect from them. In order to guide children toward acceptable behaviours, we have to set the examples of good behaviour. They tend to follow the behaviour of models they love and respect. Self Respect is Need for Self-control The child’s feelings about him/herself are important. Children who see themselves as worthless will not be motivated to behave in an acceptable way. They need to respect themselves in order to respect others. In disciplining a child, we must be careful not to humiliate a child and reduce his self-esteem. We must also avoid using labels or threats. We must expect the best of them, so that they will be inspired to be the best they can be.
  9. 9. • Be Reasonable The first step to being reasonable is to stop being so perfect. Children will see you as a role model and follow your example. Just set a good example and behave the way you would like them to behave. Always show the children that you care. Punishment is a last resort. When you have to punish them, choose the most reasonable form of punishment. Make sure they understand why you are punishing them. Let them know what the acceptable way to behave is. The punishment should always be consistent and effective. You should also learn to tell the difference between an accident and a deliberate rule breaking. Change takes time. Do not expect children to change overnight. To do so will only torture them and stress you out. In order to be reasonable, you need to rely on your wits as well as feelings.
  10. 10. How to state limits to children • • • • • • • • • • • • Involve children in developing some limits in a classroom or other settings. Tune in to what children are doing, help them focus on the task, and give good cues. Speak naturally but slowly enough that a child hears the limit clearly. Use concrete words and short sentences. Use natural, normal sentences, e.g., “It’s time to put the teacups away.” Tell a child exactly what to do, e.g., “Take small bites of your bread.” Be as positive as possible. Give choices when appropriate. Give short, clear, fair reasons for limits. Issue only one or two suggestions at a time. Give children enough time to carry out the limit or to complete something else before she carries out the limit. Restate limits appropriately. Restate limits when it is necessary to restate limits.
  11. 11. Be Gentle and Firm Children learn best when they want to learn. Make sure they are focused, active and most of all having fun. Being well-organised does not mean you cannot have fun. You should know the difference between being strict and being mean. Strict teachers are able to discipline their students effectively. It permits children to listen out of respect. Mean teachers, on the other hand, harm children emotionally. They make them feel resentful and destroy their motivation to learn.
  12. 12. Always be aware of how you treat children when you are angry with them. Try the following: 1. take a deep breath and calm down before you start telling them why you are mad at their behaviour. 2. remind yourself you do not have to look or act angry to get results. • You can also use humour to discipline children. It breaks the tension and is a good way to deal with stress. However, do not tease or be too sarcastic. Most children may not understand sarcasm and they might not even know what they are doing wrong. Even worse, you might only hurt their feelings, instead of teaching them discipline. You do not have to be too strict with young children. In fact, being too strict can work against you. Children will consider you to be mean and grumpy. They will ignore you and not take your advice seriously.
  13. 13. Guidelines for Effective Punishment • • • • • • • Start with a warning – You should not punish a child for making a mistake right away. Tell them the rules. Warn them that if the rules are broken, they would be punished. When you need to punish them, let them know what is wrong and explain why before you punish them. Set a beginning and an end – Tell them how long the punishment will last. It should depend on how severe the mistake they made was. Punish immediately – Do not punish them later. They may forget what they did wrong and why they are being punished. There is also a risk of forgetting to punish them. Enforce the rule wherever your child is, when the misbehaviour occurs – If the child misbehaves in public, make sure you can punish them by taking them home. Deliver the punishment in a calm tone – Using the right tone when you punish them gives the impact that you are serious about it. Be consistent – Impose the punishment every time that misbehaviour occurs. Always acknowledge appropriate behaviour – tell them what they should be doing and compliment them whenever they have behaved the proper way.
  14. 14. Effective and Ineffective Use of Incentives • An incentive is a reward that is given to a child for behaving appropriately. The difficult part is to know how often to reward them and what type of reward is reasonable. If not done properly, children will only behave the right way when expecting a reward. Some examples of the most common ineffective incentives are: 1. waiting too long to reward the child. 2. promising something that is inconvenient or expensive. 3. taking away a reward for behaving badly before the reward is given. 4. rewarding something that is easily available to the child or something the child already has.
  15. 15. Time-Out • Time-out is a form of punishment that puts distance between the child and the misbehaviour for a certain length of time. Time-out allows a child to sit alone quietly to think about their misbehaviour. The time-out should be in a quiet area with no access to a television or computer. It can be on a mat, in a chair, or in a separate room.
  16. 16. Time-out guideline • • • • • • • • • • • The time-out setting should be: • safe; and • as boring as possible. Always identify one priority misbehavior. Use a timer. Remember to explain time-out to your child. • Time-out is intended to improve behaviour; • What time-out is; • How the time works; • How the timer works; and • Describe the priority misbehaviour (give an example). Use time-out as part of a plan. Be consistent with time-out. Stay calm when you use time-out. Use a chart to keep a record of progress. Initial episodes may be difficult (children may not follow the required time for time-out).
  17. 17. For time-out to work, • be consistent and persistent (always follow through and never skip); • stay calm and do not react in anger (some children misbehave to get you angry, the punishment is outweighed by the reward); • do not give the child too much attention when you use time-out and do not let it distract you from other children or responsibilities; and • always be positive about good behaviour (time-out does not work on its own, its part of a plan).
  18. 18. What Do You Do When A Child Talks Back?
  19. 19. Events and Daily Schedules • • • • Know what will happen day by day Physical set up Build child’s confidence Opportunities to play and carried out projects
  20. 20. A daily schedule can be divided into: • • • • Large group time Centre time Small-group time Outdoor time
  21. 21. Other routines built into the daily schedules include: • Arrival Children like to know what to expect when they arrive at school. They like to know that you will be there to greet them and expect them to greet you and proceed with free play or other routines. Snack/mealtime A mid-morning/afternoon snack for a morning/afternoon group. They should also be a fixed point of time when meal is served, preceded by toileting and washing and followed by washing, when necessary. Rest/nap time A short rest or quiet time before lunch or after snack. A longer rest period after lunch is needed in the full-day program. Children become short-tempered and quarrelsome when they are tired. Rest/nap time allows them to calm down, remain cheerful and recover their ability to absorb more learning
  22. 22. Gender • disscuss
  23. 23. Teacher-child ratio • Based on: 1.age of the children; 2.type of program activity; 3.inclusion of children with special needs; 4.time of day; and 5.other factors (inexperienced caretakers may prefer to handle lesser children).
  24. 24. • Having the right teacher-child ratio is necessary so that caretakers are able to: 1.Provide frequent personal contact; 2.Conduct meaningful learning activities; 3.Constantly supervise the children; and 4.Offer immediate care as needed (especially during accidents or emergencies).
  25. 25. • Ratios are lowered when there are one or more children who need additional adult assistance due to: 1.developmental age and/or stage; 2.language fluency; or 3.level of ability. • There can be some variation in group size and ratios if the following criteria are good: 1.curriculum; 2.staff qualifications; and safety; and 4.physical environment.
  26. 26. Children with Special Needs • • • • • • • • Extracurricular Avoid negative influence Avoid ignorance Stimulate the to interact Positive realization Encourage them to talk Special aids Friendship and respect
  27. 27. Materials and equipment • Materials and equipment are an important part of any class. They should be safe, plentiful, age appropriate and in good condition. Safety is the most important consideration when selecting toys. Use the following guidelines: 1. To find out if it is appropriate for child use, refer to age labelling and read 2. all the warnings and safety messages on the packaging. Children who are younger than three have a high risk of swallowing or inhaling small parts. Keep toys with small balls, un-inflated balloons and 3. those with sharp points or rough edges away from these children. Make sure that any teething toys are too large to fit completely in an 4. infant’s mouth. Stuffed animals and cloth dolls should have sturdy, well-sewn seams. Any decoration on the toys should be secure and not easily pulled or bitten off.
  28. 28. Selection • • • • • Art centre Music and movement centre Dramatic play centre Language centre Science and mathematics centre
  29. 29. Suitability – age-appropriate • • • • • Sturdy, durable and safe Multi-purpose Engaging Added value Encouraging of collaboration and communication • Acknowledging diversity • Aeathetically pleasing
  30. 30. Setting up the environment • Consideration – Safety – Age- appropriateness – Attractiveness - colorful, bright, inviting – space
  31. 31. Child safety Teachers should always take a look around at the overall cleanliness of their environment. You should always take into consideration the level of comfort in its cleanliness and overall safety protocols. Here are a few things you should consider: 1. the supervision ratio; 2. whether there is a security check-in and check-out in place and if is it enforced; 3. whether it is well-ventilated, well-lit and at a comfortable temperature; 4. whether the toys are sanitised on a regular basis; 5. whether there are camera monitors; and 6. whether the outdoor play equipment is installed correctly.
  32. 32. Potential safety hazards in the outdoor environment include: • • • • • • • • • • a lack of secure fences or boundaries; poisonous plants and chemicals; slides that catch children’s clothing, leading to strangulation; excessively high equipment from which children can be injured due to falls; equipment that crushes or shears off body parts such as fingers; inappropriate surfaces that do not absorb the impact of a child’s fall; gardening equipment; an overly hot environment due to lack of shade or too much heat exposure; inadequate playground supervision; and items that are worn or broken such as splintered climbers, or rusty and sharp-edged play structures.
  33. 33. Space Well-organised spaces should: 1.have sufficient empty space; easily visible for the teacher to monitor all children from any angle of the room. Low room dividers that separate activity centres make this possible; 3.allow ease of supervision; and 4.efficient placement of storage units.
  34. 34. Physical Infant-Toddlers The physical environment in infant-toddler programs should be arranged for their unique developmental needs. Toddlers need environments that allow them to explore materials and move about freely. The environment should also provide a feeling of security and at the same time provide a wide range of materials to play with. Basic components of an infant-toddler environment include areas for: 1. 2. 3. 4. diapering, feeding, sleeping, and playing.
  35. 35. Learning centres Learning activities can be described in terms of individual and group projects. The room can be arranged to provide for large projects conducted to accomplish three types of activities: construction activities • investigation activities • dramatic play. There are many ways to arrange the classroom into centres or areas. The model described here uses: • • • • the dramatic play centre; the language centre; the science and mathematics centre; the art centre; and the music and movement centre.