5 Factors That Affect LLS

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5 Factors That Affect LLS

  1. 1. PROF DR MOHAMED AMIN EMBI BY : NOR ASYIKIN BINTI MOHD ARIDI (A143829)
  2. 2. MOTIVATION
  3. 3. MOTIVATION AS THE WORK DONE BY STUDENTS IN LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE AS A RESULT OF THE NEED AND DESIRE TO LEARN (ELLIS 1994) MOTIVATION IN THE CONTEXT OF LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE IS ONE IS WORKING AND TRYING TO LEARN THE LANGUAGE BECAUSE OF HIS DESIRE TO DO SO AND EXPERIENCE THE SATISFACTION FELT WHEN CARRYING IT OUT (GARDNER 1985)
  4. 4. Attitude and motivation of second language learners have a significant influence on a learning language (GARDNER & LAMBERT 1972) INTEGRATIVE MOTIVATION STUDENTS’ POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE ELEMENTS THAT ARE IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE (GARDNER & LAMBERT 1972) INSTRUMENTAL MOTIVATION FUNCTIONAL REASONS AND VALUE IN USE ON LANGUAGE ACHIEVEMENT (GARDNER & LAMBERT 1972)
  5. 5. MOTIVATION IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE KEY TO SUCCESS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING (DORNYEI 1990; GARDNER 1985; NUNAN 1999) HIGHLY MOTIVATED STUDENTS WILL WORK AND SPEND TIME PRACTICING WITH LLS CONSISTENTLY (EHRMAN 1990; MACARO 2001; OXFORD & NYIKOS 1989) MODEL OF "SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON THE USE OF LLS“ BY MACINTYRE (1994) ALSO SUGGESTS THAT THE MOTIVATION TO HAVE A GREAT IMPACT ON THE SELECTION OF A COMBINATION OF STRATEGIES THAT WILL BE USED
  6. 6. “OVER 1200 STUDENTS STUDY A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE UNITED STATES SHOW MOTIVATION IS THE MOST POWERFUL FACTOR IN INFLUENCING THE USE OF LLS THAN OTHER VARIABLES” (OXFORD & NYIKOS 1989) In a study of 46 Taiwanese college students who learn English as a foreign language, Chang and Huang (1999) found that the overall LLS related to the level of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  7. 7. GENDER
  8. 8. BASED ON SOME RESEARCH ABOUT GENDER DIFFERENCES ON INTELLECTUAL ABILITY, MOTIVATION, SELF-CONCEPT, AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR, MACCOBY & JACKLIN (1974) FOUND THAT WOMEN ARE MORE VERBAL APTITUDE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM MEN. MANY STUDIES ACROSS DIVERSE CULTURES SHOW FEMALE STUDENTS ARE FREQUENTLY IN USING LLS THAN MALE STUDENTS (EHRMAN & OXFORD 1989; GREEN & OXFORD 1995; POLITZER 1983) POLITZER (1983) HAS CONDUCTED RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES 90 UNDERGRADUATES WHO LEARN FRENCH, SPANISH AND GERMAN IN ONE OF THE UNIVERSITIES IN THE WEST COAST OF THE USA, FOUND THAT GIRLS USING LLS ARE MORE OFTEN THAN BOYS
  9. 9. AFTER CONDUCTING RESEARCH ON LLS THAT ARE USED BY MORE THAN 1200 UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN THE USA WHO LEARNED FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, SPANISH AND RUSSIAN LANGUAGE, OXFORD & NYIKOS ( 1989) HAVE CONCLUDED THAT GENDER HAS LARGE AND SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE USE OF LLS AND FOUND THAT GIRLS MORE OFTEN USE LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES THAN MALE STUDENT GREEN & OXFORD (1995) HAVE CARRIED OUT A STUDY ON 374 STUDENTS OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO, MAYAGUEZ AND THE RESULTS SHOWED THAT FEMALE STUDENTS USE MEMORY, METACOGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE AND SOCIAL STRATEGIES MORE OFTEN THAN MALE STUDENTS
  10. 10. MOHAMED AMIN EMBI HAD CONDUCTED A RESEARCH ON LLS ON 515 HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WHO LEARN ENGLISH IN MALAYSIA AND FOUND THAT LLS ARE USED MORE OFTEN BY FEMALE STUDENTS THAN MALE STUDENTS Cross (1983) has a view that gender differences in achievement of the target language are related to the gender of language teacher who acts as a role model, that is, female teachers will be a positive role model for girls, but not for boys
  11. 11. ETHNIC & CULTURAL
  12. 12. ETHNICITY AND CULTURE IS CONSIDERED AS ONE OF THE VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE THE USE OF LLS (GRIFFITHS 2003; MACARO 2001) POLITZER & MCGROARTY (1985) study of Asian and Hispanic students who learn English as a second language find that fewer Asian students use good LLS although they acquire linguistic and communication skills better than Hispanic students
  13. 13. COUNTRY OF ORIGIN AND ETHNICITY REPORTED AN IMPACT ON THE EASE AND DIFFICULTIES TO IMPLEMENT NEW LLS (O’MALLEY & CHAMOT 1990) In LLS training courses for students of English as a second language, O’Malley & colleagues (1985b) found Asian students have difficulty visualizing and making strategic use of classification in the learning of vocabulary Oxford (1994) felt that the remembering strategy by memorization and other ways of remembering are considering more favored by most Asian students
  14. 14. OXFORD & BURRY-STOCK (1995) THINK THAT LATINO STUDENTS OFTEN BUILD GLOBAL LEARNING STYLE, WHICH THEY PREFER TO USE STRATEGIES TO GUESS FROM THE CONTEXT, WORKING WITH OTHERS, MAKE DECISIONS BASED ON PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND NOT RELY ON LOGICAL THINKING ALONE, AND AVOID DETAILS. IN CONTRAST, CHINESE AND JAPANESE STUDENTS ANALYTICAL AND DETAILORIENTED. Reid (1987) found that students who come from different countries to learn English as a second language have different learning styles
  15. 15. MOHAMED AMIN EMBI STUDY REPORTED NO SIGNIFICANT VARIATION IN THE USE OF LLS AS A WHOLE BASED ON ETHNICITY. HOWEVER, INDIAN STUDENTS WERE MORE LIKELY TO USE STRATEGIES IN THE CLASSROOM AND OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM THAN STUDENTS OF CHINESE AND MALAY Some researchers (O’Malley et al. 1985b; O’Malley & Chamot 1990) see these differences occur due to the educational experience rooted in a culture or society
  16. 16. AGE
  17. 17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS AGE WITH THE POTENTIAL TO ACHIEVE SUCCESS IN LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE IS A MATTER OF MUCH DEBATE (LIGHTBOWN & SPADA 2003) Very little research has extensively explore the effects of age on language learning strategy selection (Macaro 2001; Oxford 1989a) According to Graham (1997), it is quite difficult to trace clearly the development of language learning strategies based on student age
  18. 18. SCARCELLA & OXFORD (1992) SURVEYED OF 40 ESL INSTITUTE IN THE UNITED STATES SHOWS THAT THERE IS CORRELATION BETWEEN SUCCESS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING WITH LLS. THEY FOUND THAT STUDENTS WHO ARE QUITE OLD HAS THE UPPER HAND IN TERMS OF PROCUREMENT ASPECTS OF SYNTAX AND MORPHOLOGY Chen (1994) study of 578 high school students in Taiwan indicate the age difference does not have a statistically significant relationship with the use of language learning strategies
  19. 19. TARGET LANGUAGE
  20. 20. POLITZER(1983) STUDY ON COLLEGE STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES WHO LEARNED FRENCH, GERMAN AND SPAIN FOUND THAT STUDENTS WHO LEARN SPANISH USING ONLY SLIGHTLY POSITIVE LLS THAN OTHERS Chamot & colleagues (1987) study showed that students who studied Russian language use more strategies than those who learn Spanish Second language learners are surrounded by stimulation in the target language, whether in visual or auditory, while foreign language students, only accept input in the target language in class and had to find another input and stimulation in his own way (Oxford & Sherin 1994)
  21. 21. MOHAMED AMIN EMBI (1996, 2000A) STUDY FIND LEARNING ENGLISH IN MALAYSIA CAN BE CONSIDERED IN THE CONTEXT OF LANGUAGE LEARNING MIXED. THIS IS DUE TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN MALAYSIA HAS ITS OWN HISTORY SINCE THE BRITISH COLONIZED MALAYA “.., while some want to make Arabic learning in Malaysia as a second language” (Kamarulzaman et al. 2002) Azlina (1998) study found that among the reasons for the inability of students to master the Arabic language is because the students assumed it as a foreign language and its use is not widespread in the community

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