Skill 1, 2,3


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Skill 1, 2,3

  1. 1. Thesecondsection of the TOEFL TEST istheSTRUcture & writtenexpressionsection.<br />You can follow 5 general strategies:<br />
  2. 2. General Strategies.<br />1. Be familiar withthedirections.<br />2. Beginwithquestions 1 through 15. (Structure)<br />3. Continuewithquestions 16 through 40 . (writtenexpression)<br />4.If youhave time, returntoquestion 1 through 15. <br />5. NEVER LEAVE ANY ANSWERS BLANK ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET.<br />
  3. 3. StructureQuestions. 1 -15, Test yourknowledge of thecorrectstructure of Englishsentences. This are multiple-choicequestions.<br />EXAMPLE: <br />______________ istaking a tripto New York.<br />A)They<br />B)When<br />C)TheWoman<br />D)Her<br />
  4. 4. Strategiesforthestructurequestions.<br />1. First study the sentence. Your purpose is to determine what is needed to complete the sentence correctly.<br />2. Then study each answer based on how well it completes the sentence.<br />3. Do not try to eliminate incorrect answer by looking only at the answer.<br />4. Never leave any answers blank. Even if you are unsure.<br />5. Do not spend too much time on the structure questions. Leave space for the written.<br />
  5. 5. Sentenceswithoneclause.SKILL 1 Be surethesentence has a subject and a verb.<br />BE SURE the SENTENCE HAS SUBJECT AND VERB<br />Underlinethesubjects once and theverbstwice in each of thefollowingsentences. Thenindicateifthesentences are correct © orincorrect (i)<br />
  6. 6. 1-__i__last weekwentfishingfortrout at thenearbymountainlake.<br />2-_____ A schedule of theday´sevents can beobtained at thefrontdesk.<br />3_____ A jobonthedayshiftorthenightshift at theplantavailable.<br />4_____ The new computerprogram has provides a variety of helpfulapplications.<br />5- ___The box can beopenedonlywith a specialscrewdriver.<br />6-____ Theassignedtextforhistoryclassitcontains more thantwentychapters.<br />7-_____ Thepapers in thewastebasketshouldbeemptiedintothetrash can outside.<br />
  7. 7. 8. _____ Departurebeforedawnon a boat in themiddle of theharbor.<br />9._____Yesterday foundaninterestingarticleonpollution.<br />10.- ____ The new machine isprocesses 50% more thanprevious machine.<br />1.- I missingsubject (he) 8.-I missingverb (departschedule<br />2.-C 9.-I missingsubject (I)<br />3.-I missingverb (isavailable. 10.- I 2 verbs (is-prov)<br />4.-I twoverbs (has provide)<br />5.-c<br />6.-2 subjects<br />7.- c<br />
  8. 8. SKILL 2 OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS<br />Anobject of prepositionis a nounor a pronounthat comes after a preposition, such as <br />
  9. 9. An OBJECT of a preposition can cause confusion in thestructuresection of the TOEFL exam, it can bemistakenforthesubject of a sentence<br />EXAMPLE:<br />Withhisfriend_______ foundthemovietheater.<br />a)Has<br />b)He<br />c)Later<br />d)When<br />IF A WORD IS AN OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION IT IS NOT THE SUBJECT<br />
  10. 10. EXERCISE 2. Each of thefollowingsentencescontainsoneor more prepositionalphrases. Underlinethesubject once, theverbtwice and circletheprepositionalphrasesthat come beforetheverb. Thenindicateifthesentences are correctorincorrect<br />___ 1. The interviews byradiobroadcasterswerecarriedlivebythestation.<br />___2. In thelastpossiblemomentbeforetakeofftookhisseat in theairplane.<br />___3. At theneighborhoodflower shop, flowers in quantities of a dozenor a halfdozen can bedeliveredfor free.<br />___4. Theprogressivereadingmethods at thisschool are givencreditfortheimproved test scores.<br />___5. Forthelastthreeyears at varioushospitals in the country has beenpracticing medicine.<br />
  11. 11. SKILL 3 AppositivesAn appositive is a noun or pronoun — often with modifiers — set beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it. Here are some examples of appositives (the noun or pronoun will be in blue, the appositive will be in red).<br />Your friend Bill is in trouble.<br />My brother's car, a sporty red convertible with bucket seats, is the envy of my friends.<br />The chief surgeon, an expert in organ-transplant procedures, took her nephew on a hospital tour.<br />An appositive phrase usually follows the word it explains or identifies, but it may also precede it.<br />A bold innovator, WassilyKadinsky is known for his colorful abstract paintings.<br />The first state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, Delaware is rich in history.<br />A beautiful collie, Skip was my favorite dog.<br />
  12. 12. Punctuation of appositives<br />In some cases, the noun being explained is too general without the appositive; the information is essential to the meaning of the sentence. When this is the case, do not place commas around the appositive; just leave it alone. If the sentence would be clear and complete without the appositive, then commas are necessary; place one before and one after the appositive.<br />Here are some examples.<br />The popular US president John Kennedy was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.<br />Here we do not put commas around the appositive, because it is essential information. Without the appositive, the sentence would be, "The popular US president was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches." We wouldn't know which president was being referred to.<br />John Kennedy, the popular US president, was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.<br />Here we put commas around the appositive because it is not essential information. Without the appositive, the sentence would be, "John Kennedy was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches." We still know who the subject of the sentence is without the appositive.<br />John Kennedy the popular US president was quite different from John Kennedy the unfaithful husband.<br />Here we do not put commas around either appositive because they are both essential to understanding the sentence. Without the appositives, the sentence would just be John Kennedy was quite different from John Kennedy. We wouldn't know what qualities of John Kennedy were being referred to without the appositive.<br />
  13. 13. EXERCISE 3: Each of thefollowingsentencescontainsanappositive. Underlinethesubject once and theverbstwice. Circletheappositivephrases. Then, indicateifthesentences are correct ( c ) orincorrect ( I )<br />The son of thepreviousowner, the new ownerisundertakingsomefairlybroadchanges in managementpolicy.<br />Lastsemester, a friend, graduated cum laude fromtheuniversity.<br />Valentine´sDay, February 14, is a specialholidayforsweethearters.<br />At longlast, thechiefexecutiveofficer, has decidedtostepdown.<br />Tonight´ssupper, leftoversfromlastnight, didnot taste anybettertonightthanlastnight.<br />
  14. 14. 6.The onlyentrancetothe closet, thedoorwaskeptlocked at all times.<br />7. In thecold of winter, a wallheatingunit, wouldnotturnon.<br />8. The new tile pattern, yellowflowerson a whitebackground, reallybrightens up theroom.<br />9. Thehigh-poweredcomputerthemostpowerful machine of it´stype, wasfinallyreadiedfor use.<br />10. A logtimefriend and confident, thepsycologistwasofteninvitedoverforSundaydinner.<br />
  15. 15. SKILL 4PRESENT PARTICIPLES. IS THE –ING form of theverb. It can bepart of the VERB (whenitisaccompaniedbysomeform of theverbbe) oranadjective. <br />Themanistalkingtohisfriend.<br />Themantalkingtohisfriend has a beard.<br />
  16. 16. Each of thefollowingsentencescontainsoneor more presentparticiples. Underlinethesubjects once, theverbstwice . circlethepresentparticiples and labelthen as adjectivesorverbs. Thenindicateifthesentences are correctorincorrect.<br />1.___ Thecompaniesofferinglowestpriceswillhavethemostcustomers.<br />2.___ Thosetravelers are completingtheirtripon Delta shouldreporttoGateThree.<br />3.___ Theartisansweredemonstratingvarioushandicrafts at bothsthroughoutthefair.<br />4.___ Thefraternities are givingthewildestpartiesattractthemost new pledges.<br />5.___ Thefirstteamwinningfourgamesisawardedthechampionship.<br />6.___ The speaker wastryingtomakehispointwasofteninterruptedvociferously. <br />
  17. 17. 7.___ Thefruitswererottingbecause of moisture in thecratescarryingthemtomarket.<br />8.___ Anystudentsdesiringofficialtranscriptsshould complete theappropiateform.<br />9.___ Theadvertisementswereannouncingthehalf-day sale recived a lot of attention.<br />10.___ Thespicesflavoringthemealwere quite distinctive.<br />
  18. 18. SKILL 5PAST PARTICIPLES oftenends in ed, butthere are also irregular pastparticiples. The –edform of theverb can be- the simple past, -Thepastparticiple of a verbor –anadjective<br />EXAMPLES:<br />Thefamily has purchased a television.<br />Thepoemwaswrittenby Paul.<br />Thetelevisionpurchasedyesterdaywasexpensive<br />Thepoemwrittenby Paul appeared in the magazine.<br />
  19. 19. Each of thefollowingsentencescontainsoneor more pASTparticiples. Underlinethesubjects once, theverbstwice . circlethepastparticiples and labelthem as adjectivesorverbs. Thenindicateifthesentences are correctorincorrect.<br />1.___ Themoneywasofferedbytheclientwasnotaccepted.<br />2.___ The car listed in theadvertisementhadalreadystalled.<br />3.___ Thechaptersweretaughtbythe profesor thismorningwillbeonnextweek´sexam.<br />4.___ Theloaves of bread werebaked in a brick oven at a lowtemperatureformanyhours.<br />5.___ Theportswerereachedbythesailorswereunderthe control of a foreignnation.<br />
  20. 20. 6.___ Thosesuspected in thestring of robberieswerearrestedbythepolice.<br />7.___ The pizza isserved in this restaurant isthetastiest in the country.<br />8.___ Thecourses are listedonthesecond page of thebrochurehaveseveralprerequisites.<br />9.___ Allthetenantswereinvitedtothe Independence Daybarbecue at theapartmentcomplex.<br />10.___ Anybillspaidbythefirst of themonthwillbecreditedtoyouraccountbythenextday.<br />