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  2. 2.  10 REASONS TO USE STORIES IN THEENGLISH CLASSROOM Wonderful tool for practising listening skills Good fun Put students’ imagination to work Develop fantasy Develop human feelings (happiness/understanding/empathy/sadness/pity) Connect the present with the past and the future Release tension Cooperative Increases self-esteem Enriching experience
  3. 3.  OTHER REASONS For motivation > Story Telling > Story Reading To practise different skills good reading starting point to make own books to role-play/dramatize to develop conceptual skills: prediction guessing meaning training memory For interest Stories can be chosen to reflect on the language topic on other areas
  4. 4.  For social relevance: To discuss and explore issues of social relevance: * awareness of good/bad social behaviour * emotions * share culture/history For variety: Stories broaden the use of English, expanding course book contents For context: Stories give context and meaning to the language a genuine reason for listening
  5. 5.  Theoretical BackgroundLiterature in F.L.Teaching increased material /activities from Lit. Texts appeal to the learner’s imagination, increase motivation,create a rich and meaningful context STORYTELLING technique most frequently used established part of the curriculum stories: seen as first-rateresource
  6. 6. AGE GROUPS 4-year-old children : capable of telling stories in snatches 6-year-old children : include cause and effectrelationship between events recognize 3 of the mainfeatures of storytelling * location of the action in space and time * the main plot * the final outcome
  7. 7. 4-6 year oldsCharacteristics Implications Need*pre-school/beginning * not used to class- * training in class school room conventions routine* limited motor skills * clumsy control of * to develop motor pen/scissors control(colouring)* learn holistically * child needs stimulation * opportunities tomove, sing, play, explore,etc.* cannot distinguish * cannot analyse lang * exposure to chunks betw.different parts of lang. (chants/ language stories)* limited reading/ * introducing reading/ * Lots listening/ writing skills writing in Eng. speaking activ.* see no need to * use L1 exclusively * reasons to speak communicate in Engl. Engl.(games, chants)* love stories, fantasy * bored with many topics * stories, fantasy,fun
  8. 8. 7-9 year oldsCharacteristics Implications Need* beginning to be * can see patterns, * opportunities to logical / anlytical aware of lang. Experiment•asking questions * need answers * freedom to express* reading and writing * still need support * practice andsuccess still minimal in L 1 and help oriented activ.* still have problems * group activ. not * teacher guides, sharing always successful chances to workalone* developing confidence * own views on what * chance to state to express they want to do/talk opinions about* developing knowledge * know more than we * chances to usewhat of the world around them often think they know
  9. 9. 10-12 year olds Characteristics Implications Need* longer attention span * greater range of activ. * opportunities toengage possible in class in tasks thatrequire focus &commintment* knowledge of the * more topics can be * stimulation(information world growing addressed fromInternet/cross- curricular)* take learning more * can be given * chances to be seriously responsibility independent* still children * have need for security * teacher sensitive to and pleasure their needs &moods* more cooperative * can do more group * variety of grouping with peers work (work on own, inpairs, in group,as
  10. 10. Reasons which make storytelling useful in linguisticterms: Development of listening skills: Listening for gist (main idea/plot) Acquisition of new vocabulary lang.: Lang. contextualised and repeated Development of the child’s literary competence: Ability to understand and enjoy lit. Introduction to narrative conventions Communicative exchange involved in stories: Interaction betw. storyteller/audience Audience collaboration Interaction with an adult in a shared context
  11. 11. HOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT KIND OFSTORY have these elements:Stories should• simple storyline lends to: dramatization and pantomime heavy use of visuals and realia to illustrate content• should not be too long• language should match or be easily adapted to their level of proficiency• have a clear plan of activities to exploit the story• dialogues should be short and memorable• predictable structures or familiar to the children, with a large proportion of previously learned vocabulary• repetitive phrases: formulas and patterns that occur regularly andpredictably• clearly visible print• attractive pictures
  12. 12. STORYTELLING IN FOREIGN LANGUAGETEACHINGo An aid in the teaching of a foreign lang.o Reasons to use them with lower level learners: need for classroom activ. which are meaningful implies greater learner involvement need to create activ. which most closely reflect the process of natural acquisition of language the need to communicateo Content-based syllabuses developed out of this need selection based on certain topic use of all opportunities for real communicative interaction(spontaneous use of lang.)
  13. 13. LISTENING TO STORIES Why is listening so important? the skill children acquire first the basis for the development of all other skills children start to learn a language mainly through their ears main channel to make initial contact * Important to give visual back-up: facial expression/movement/mimingTo teachers:• say things clearly• repeat words and phrases• re-tell the story again and again• create a friendly atmosphere• establish a story telling routine• rearrange seating to make eye contact• make pupils feel comfortable and relaxed
  14. 14. Listening to storiesREFLECTS THE PROCESS OF NATURAL ACQUISITION OF THELANGUAGE Stephen Krashen …. the need to communicate in a meaningful way….. the comprehensible input1) Simplified utterances: lots of repetition – classification – deliberate rhythm2) Characteristics of the story: easy to imitate ( with rhyme, onomatopoeia, rhythm, intonation)3) Comprehension of the story: use of visual aids – gestures- mimeSilent period : recommended in the early stages of language learning
  15. 15. STEPS IN THE STORY TELLING PROCESSPlanning1) Choose a suitable story and go through the story first2) “Skeletalize it”: major features and characters the setting and the story line2) Emphasize vocabulary or structures through repetition3) Present or revise vocabulary through: visuals, flashcards, realia,etc4) Story teller begins the tale using: mime- gestures- body language- dramatic expressions- visuals5) Involve learners through: actions - predictions7) Use meaningful activities: It leads to a greater learners’ involvement8) Divide the story telling activities in 3 stages: - before you read or tell the story - while you read or tell it (during the second time) - after you read or tell it
  16. 16. STORY READINGLISTENING Main source of lang., when pupils start to learn it.PRINT 2nd main source of expanding the lang stregthening the langREADING Language skill easiest to keepBOOKS Open up other worlds to children!!!!!
  17. 17. READING STORIES Additional benefit of connecting narrative with printed page Teachers read very familiar stories aloud at early stages oflanguage acquisition While reading aloud: > is helpful to point to the words or lines > we emphasize the connection of oral lang toprint You should not change the story Children like to have their favourite stories repeated They are able to tell the story word for word (they do not likechanges!!) Older groups: a continuing story, so that you read a bit of the
  18. 18. Children progress through 3 stages as readers:Emergent readers Become aware of the basics of reading Young children need predictable books/repetition andrhyme/illustrations that match the textEarly readers  Understand the basics of print  Use various strategies to gain meaning  Can read more detailed and complicated stories Fluent readers Are confident readers Use many strategies Read a variety of genres
  19. 19. Reading experiences SHARED READING Select the appropriate book Ask about what they see in the cover Point out the title and ask them to predict it Point out the illustrations Ask them to make predictions about the story plot Read aloud with enthusiasm (Model book handling,page sequence,etc) Pause frequently to comment on the illustrations and actions Ask questions about objects or characters in the illustrations Lead simple discussions Ask questions that reflect opinions