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Biology 9th


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Biology 9th

  1. 1. 1 Class 9th Biology chapter # 1 introduction to biology Written By Noor Rahman M.Sc Zoology SPS College Rahim Abad SwatA. Select the correct answers in the following questions.1. What is the branch of biology in which structure and functions of tissue s arestudied?a)Cell biology b)Taxonomy c)Histology d)Morphology2. Biometry is the application of ................ in biologya)Algebra b)Statistics c)Matrix d)Geometry3. Al-Qanun fil-Tibb is the famous book of:a)bu Ali Sina b)Jabir bin Hayyan c)Abdul Malik Asmai d)Ibn Nafees4. Study of insects is calleda)Immunology b)Parasitology c)Entomology d)Paleontology5. Carbon is a key element ina)Organic Compounds b)Inorganic Compounds c)Chemical Compounds d) allof these6. Ameoba represents which level of organizationa)Cell b)Tissue c)Organism d)Organelle7. Capillaries are an example of.................a)Organ system b)Cell c)organ d)Tissue8. ................... is the mass of air surrounding the Earth?a) Lithosphere b)Atmosphere c)Ecosystem d) Biosphere9. All of the following are elements that plants need in very small amountsEXCEPTa)Hydrogen b)Iron c)Chlorine d)Copper10. Which of the following cellular organization represents Volvox?a) Unicellular b) Multicellular c)Bicellular d)Colonial form
  2. 2. 2B. Write answers for the following questions.Q1. Briefly establish the linkage between biology with physics,geography and statistics.Ans: Linkage between biology and physics: Biology and physics (biophysics), interdisciplinary study ofbiological phenomena and problems, using the principles andtechniques of physics. Biophysics is closely related to a number ofbiological disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology,microbiology, physiology, histology, and virology. Linkage between biology and geography: Biology and geography are dependent on each other; we study thedistribution of plant and animal in biogeography. Scientists also learn aboutevolution by studying how different species of plants and animals aregeographically distributed in nature, and how they relate to theirenvironment and to each other. Linkage between biology and statistics: The application of statistical techniques to biological data is biostatistics.Biostatistics include such measures as birth, death, and infant death rates;diseases; and trends of this data over time. The biostatistician works tocollect such measures, which may include surveys, lab reports, and hospitaldischarge data.Q2. Define biology. List down its major branchesAns: Major Branches of Biology:Biology: The word “biology” derived from two Greek words “Bios”meaning life and “Logos” meaning study, so the scientific study of life iscalled biology. OR “The study of living things is called biology”. Biologyincludes several branches. Three major branches of biology are given below.
  3. 3. 3Botany –Greek: botane means plants. “A branch of biology which deals with the scientific study of plants iscalled Botany”.Zoology – Greek: Zoon means animals “ The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life, includingthe study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification ofanimals”.Microbiology – Greek: mikros means small “The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects onother living organisms”Q3. Define other branches of biologyAns: Biology is further divided into several sub branches some of them aregiven below,Morphology – Greek: Morph means structure“A branch of biology which deals with the study of structure of organisms iscalled morphology”Anatomy – Greek: Anatome means dissection / cutting “A branch of biology which deals with the study of internal parts oforganisms is called anatomy”Physiology – Latin: Physiologia means function“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the functions of livingorganisms and their parts is called physiology”Embryology / Developmental Biology - Greek: Embroun means growth
  4. 4. 4“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the processes throughwhich an organism develops, from zygote to full structure is calledembryology”Cell Biology/ Cytology – Greek: Cyto means cell“A branch of biology which deals with the study of a single cell and itsorganelles is ca lled cytology”Histology – Greek: Histos means tissue“A branch of biology which deals with the study of tissue, under amicroscope is called histology”Paleontology – Greek: Palaios means primitive/fossil“A branch of biology which deals with the study of fossils of plants,animals, and other organisms is called paleontology. Paleontology hasfurther two branches, a) paleobotany: Study of plants fossils,b) Paleozoology: study of animals fossils.Immunobiology /Immunology – Latin: Immunis means not affected bydisease. “A branch of biology which deals with the study of the immune system inbody of organisms against diseases is called immunology.Entomology - Greek: Entomon means Insect.The study of insects is called entomology.Genetics – Greek: Genos means race/kind/ancestry/heredity“A branch of biology which deals with the study of hereditary charactersthat transmitted from parents to offspring is called genetics.Microbiology – Greek: mikros means small
  5. 5. 5“A branch of biology which deals with the study of small and microscopicorganisms (microorganisms/microbes) and their interactions with otherliving things is called microbiology.Biotechnology –“A technology that used for human welfare is called biotechnology.” e.g.making of Butter, cheese, and vine. Biotechnology also help incloning/tissue culture etcEnvironmental Biology / Ecology – Greek: Oikos means house/habitation“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the relationshipsbetween plants, animals, and their environment is called ecology.Parisitology – Greek: Parasitos means some body that eats another’sfood/grains“A branch of biology which deals with the study of parasites, life cycle ofparasites and relation with their host is called parastology.Social biology – Latin: Socialis means companion“A branch of biology which deals with the study of those organisms whichare living together in a community and interact each other is called socialbiology, e.g. social insects (ants, bees, and termites), birds flock, humansand fishes living in groups.Pharmacology – Greek: Pharmakon means drugs“A branch of biology which deals with the study and practical application ofpreparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines is calledpharmacology.
  6. 6. 6Q4. Enlist the various levels of biological organization.Ans: Levels biological of Organization: All living things have a structure that is based on specific organization of materials.While science discovers new levels all of the time, In Anatomy,you are responsible for knowing the levels of organization from the atom to the organism.
  7. 7. Level of Explanation Example organization Matter is composed of up atoms and atom is the smallest particle that maintains its physical and chemical properties; although particles oxygen, smaller than the atom have been discovered, nitrogen, gold but they do not maintain these properties. (electrons, protons and neutrons) Atom when two or more atoms are bonded together water, carbon they form molecules. dioxide Molecule They consists simple molecules such asMicromolecules Amino acids, glucose, fatty acids. proteins, lipids, carbohydratesMacromolecule when two or more micro molecules are bonded together to form large molecules mitochondria, several macromolecules bonded together form Organelles nucleus, golgi these building blocks of a cell apparatus the smallest unit of life, a cell is a collection of bacteria, animal, organelles functioning together plant Cell a collections of cells working together to epithelial, Tissue perform a specific job connective two or more types of tissues that work together heart, stomach, to complete a specific task brain Organ digestive,Organ system
  8. 8. Q5. Describe the contribution of Muslim scientists’ in biology.Ans: Contribution of Muslim scientists’ in biology: a) Bu Ali Sina: (980, Bukhara– 1037, Irán) Commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latin name Avicennawas a renowned Muslim scientist and philosopher. He was a Persian. The Canon of Medicine (Qanun fil-Tib) was used as a text-book inmany medical universities up to 1650. His writing also includes philosophy,astronomy, alchemy, geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic,mathematics, physics, as well as poetry. b) Jabir Bin Hayyan: (721 in Persia; 815 Iraq) Often known simply as Geber in West, (Persian/Arabic) a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. He was the first practical chemist. c) Abdual-Malik Asmai: (740Basra-828Bughdad) Asmai was an Arab scholar. He was also a pioneer of Natural Science and Zoology. Asmai wrote many books such as: Kitab al-Khail (The Book of the Horse), Kitab al-Ibil (The Book of the Camel), Kitab 9 al-Farq (The Book of Rare Animals), Kitab al-Wuhush (The Book of Wild Animals), Kitab al-Sha (The Book of the Sheep) and Kitab Khalaq al-Insan (The Book of Humanity).Q5. If you study biology which career path will you prefer to choose andwhy? Ans: As a Biologist there are several career paths one of them I will chooselike;
  9. 9. 1) Field of Medicine: “A substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, orprevention of a disease is called medicine”. While studying biology astudent should prefer to choose medical line because it is one of the bestamong career paths, after completion of intermediate.2) Fisheries: / (As Ichthyologist) the study of fishes is called ichthyology.After selecting biology as a subject next best field after medical, is fishery.As Ichthyologist, a man must know about fish habitats, breeding, diseases,food, population, fish farming or aquaculture etc. As a manager they maywork in hatchery (place of hatching eggs) and prevention from diseases. Andkeep up to date with fish production and information.3) Agriculture: The science of cultivating crops like wheat, maize, rice andfarming of animals that gives milk and meat. Agriculture is one of the bestfields so, after completion of intermediate a student of biology may join thisline for their career.4) Animal Science/ Animal husbandry: Animal science is related to breeding andveterinary (medical or surgical treatment) of animals). After completion of intermediate astudent of biology has a choice to select D.V.M (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine) whichmakes his/ her future bright.5) Horticulture: Latin hortus, garden. “The science of cultivating fruits,vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants” Horticulture primarily differsfrom agriculture in two ways. First, it surrounds a smaller scale of 10cultivation. Secondly, horticultural cultivations include a wide variety ofcrops.6) Forestry: Forestry is the scientific management of forest lands for woodwater, wildlife, and recreation. Because the major economic importance ofthe forest lies in wood and wood products, forestry chiefly concerned withtimber management, especially reforestation, maintenance of the forest, andfire control.7) Farming: Farms are developed and maintained for animals and plantsbreeding. After selecting as a profession have the practical knowledge
  10. 10. Q6. What are bioelements name them and highlight their importance?Ans: Among 92 naturally occurring elements sixteen are very essential toliving organisms. Six of them occur in large quantity and make 99% ofliving organisms. They are Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N),Carbon (C), Phosphorous (P) and Calcium(C). Mainly carbon, hydrogen andoxygen make most structures such as, sugars, starches and other energymolecules while nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur make proteins. Other elements are needed in less quantity (less than 1%), they are sulphur(S), sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron(Fe), copper (Cu),Zinc (Zn), Iodine(I) and Chlorine(Cl). E.g. Iron isessential for haemoglobin (red blood cells), calcium for teeth and bones.Sodium and potassium are important for sending messages along nerves. Plants photosynthesis using carbon dioxide from the air and water from thesoil to make their own food; they store food up as starch in potatoes, grains,leaves, and put sugar into fruits while animals eat and distribute these. Plantsuse minerals from the soil to manufacture whatever they need in their ownstructure. Thus all these elements are available to us when we eat plants. Written By Noor Rahman M.Sc Zoology (B.Ed) SPS College Rahim Abad Swat