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Ankylosing spondylitis. (ben)

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Ankylosing spondylitis. (ben)

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Ankylosing spondylitis. (ben)

  1. 1. DANYLO HALYTSK LVIV NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY  BENSON SUNNY TAMUNO-IBIM  Group No. 3  6th Course  GENERAL MEDICAL FACULTY
  2. 2. ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (Marie-Strümpell disease / Bechterew's disease )
  3. 3.  Inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that primarily affects the axial skeleton; peripheral joints and extra-articular structures may also be involved .  Autoimmune disease  AS causes pain, stiffness, disability, decreased spinal mobility, and decreased quality of life  Disease usually begins in the second or third decade.  M:F= 3:1  HLA-B27 present in > 90% cases  Sacroiliitis is usually one of the earliest manifestations.
  4. 4. Pathogenesis of AS  Incompletely understood, but knowledge increasing  Interaction between HLA-B27 and T-cell response  Increased concentration of T-cells, macrophages, and pro- inflammatory cytokines  Role of TNF  Inflammatory reactions  produce hallmarks of disease  In some cases, the disease occurs in these predisposed people after exposure to bowel or urinary tract infections.
  5. 5. PATHOLOGY  The enthesis, the site of ligamentous attachment to bone, is thought to be the primary site of pathology.  Enthesitis is associated with prominent edema of the adjacent bone marrow and is often characterized by erosive lesions that eventually undergo ossification.  Synovitis follows and may progress to pannus formation with islands of new bone formation.  The eroded joint margins are gradually replaced by fibrocartilage regeneration and then by ossification. Ultimately, the joint may be totally obliterated.
  6. 6. Clinical Features of AS Skeletal Axial arthritis (eg, sacroiliitis and spondylitis) Arthritis of ‘girdle joints’ (hips and shoulders) Peripheral arthritis uncommon Others: enthesitis, osteoporosis, vertebral, fractures, spondylodiscitis, pseudoarthrosis Extraskeletal Acute anterior uveitis Cardiovascular involvement Pulmonary involvement Cauda equina syndrome Enteric mucosal lesions Amyloidosis, miscellaneous
  7. 7. CLINICAL FEATURES Initial symptom-  Insidious onset dull pain in the lower lumbar or gluteal region  Low-back morning stiffness of up to a few hours duration that improves with activity and returns following periods of inactivity.  Pain usually becomes persistent and bilateral. Nocturnal exacerbation .  Predominant complaint - Back pain or stiffness.  Bony tenderness may present at - costosternal junctions, spinous processes, iliac crests, greater trochanters, ischial tuberosities, tibial tubercles, and heels.  Neck pain and stiffness from involvement of the cervical spine : late manifestations
  8. 8.  Arthritis in the hips and shoulders (“root” joints) : in 25 to 35% of patients.  Arthritis of other peripheral joints: usually asymmetric.  Pain tends to be persistent early in the disease and then becomes intermittent, with alternating exacerbations and quiescent periods.  In a typical severe untreated case- the patient's posture undergoes characteristic changes, with obliterated lumbar lordosis, buttock atrophy, and accentuated thoracic
  9. 9. Cervical mobility  Occiput-to-wall distance  Tragus-to-wall distance  Cervical rotation  Chest expansion Thoracic mobility Lumber mobility Modified schober index Finger-to-floor distance Lumber lateral flexion TEST and MEASUREMENT for AS Clinical Test
  10. 10. Occiput To Wall Distance ( Flesche Test )  The occiput to wall distance should be zero
  11. 11. Tragus-to-wall distance  Maintain starting position i.e. ensure head in neutral position (anatomical alignment), chin drawn in as far as possible. Measure distance between tragus of the ear and wall on both sides, using a rigid ruler. Ensure no cervical extension, rotation, flexion or side flexion occurs.
  12. 12. Cervical rotation  Patient supine, head in neutral position, forehead horizontal (if necessary head on pillow or foam block to allow this, must be documented for future reassessments).  Gravity goniometer / bubble inclinometer placed centrally on the forehead. Patient rotates head as far as possible, keeping shoulders still, ensure no neck flexion or side flexion occurs. Normal ROM: 70-900
  13. 13. Chest expansion  Measured as the difference between maximal inspiration and maximal forced expiration in the fourth intercostal space in males or just below the breasts in females. Normal chest expansion is ≥5 cm.
  14. 14. Lumbar flexion (modified Schober)  With the patient standing upright, place a mark at the lumbosacral junction (at the level of the dimples of Venus on both sides). Further marks are placed 5 cm below and 10 cm above. Measure the distraction of these two marks when the patient bends forward as far as possible, keeping the knees straight• The distance less than 5 cm is abnormal
  15. 15. Finger to floor distance  Expression of spinal column mobility when bending over forward; the dimension that is measured is the distance between the tips of the fingers and the floor when the patient is bent over forward with knees and arms fully extended.
  16. 16. Lateral spinal flexion Patient standing with heels and buttocks touching the wall, knees straight, outer edges of feet 30 cm apart, feet parallel. Measure minimal fingertip-to-floor distance in full lateral flexion and without flexion, extension or rotation of the trunk or bending the knees. Greater than 10cm is normal. >>>> >>>>
  17. 17. Range of motion Cervical Spine  Forward flexion: 0 to 45 degrees  Extension: 0 to 45 degrees  Left Lateral Flexion: 0 to 45  Right Lateral Flexion: 0 to 45  Left Lateral Rotation: 0 to 80  Right Lateral Rotation: 0 to 80 Thoracolumbar spine  Forward flexion: 0 to 90 degrees  Extension: 0 to 30 degrees  Left Lateral Flexion: 0 to 30  Right Lateral Flexion: 0 to 30  Left Lateral Rotation: 0 to 30  Right Lateral Rotation: 0 to 30
  18. 18. TESTS FOR SACROILITIS  Pelvic compression test  Faber test  Gaenslen Test  Pump Handle test
  19. 19. GAENSLEN TEST Gaenslen test stresses the sacroiliac joints, Increased pain during this test could be indicative of joint disease.
  20. 20. PELVIC COMPRESSION TEST  Test irritability by compressing the pelvis with the patient prone. Sacroiliac pain will be lateralised to the inflamed joint.
  21. 21. Patrick's test or FABER test  The test is performed by having the tested leg flexed, abducted and externally rotated. If pain results, this is considered a positive Patrick's test.
  22. 22. LAB. TESTS  HLA B27: present in ≈ 90% of patients.  ESR and CRP – often elevated.  Mild anemia.  Elevated serum IgA levels.  ALP & CPK raised.
  23. 23. X-RAY Sacroiliitis-  Early: blurring of the cortical margins of the subchondral bone  Followed by erosions and sclerosis.  Progression of the erosions leads to “pseudo widening” of the joint space  As fibrous and then bony ankylosis supervene, the joints may become obliterated.  The changes and progression of the lesions are usually symmetric.  Seen in Ferguson's View (specialized sacroiliac view).  Dynamic MRI is the procedure of
  24. 24. Lumbar spine:  Loss of lordosis/ straightening  Diffuse osteoporosis  Reactive sclerosis- caused by osteitis of the anterior corners of the vertebral bodies with subsequent erosion (Romanus lesion), leading to “squaring” of the vertebral bodies.  Ossification os supraspinous & interspinous ligaments “ dagger Sign”.  Formation of marginal syndesmophytes,  Later Bamboo spine appearance when ankylosis of spine occurs.
  25. 25. DIAGNOSIS  Modified Newyork Criteria (1984) 4 + any of 1/2/3 1. Inflammatory low back pain > 3 months (Age of onset < 40, Insidious onset, Duration longer than 3 months, Pain worse in the morning, Morning stiffness lasts longer than 30 minutes, Pain decreases with Exercise, Pain provoked by prolonged inactivity or lying down, Pain accompanied with constitutional Symptoms- Anorexia, Malaise, Low grade fever) 2. Limited motion of lumbar spine in sagittal & frontal planes 3. Limited chest expansion (<2.5cm at 4th ICS) 4. Definite radiologic sacroiliitis
  26. 26. Disease Specific Instruments For The Measurement In Ankylosing Spondylitis Instrument Measures Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) Disease activity Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) Function Dougados functional index (DFI) Function Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) Function Modified stoke ankylosing spondylitis spinal score (m-sasss) Structural damage
  27. 27. TREATMENT 1. Regular physical therapy 2. NSAIDS 3. Sulfasalazine, in doses of 2 to 3 g/d- Effective for axial and peripheral arthritis 4. Methotrexate, in doses of 10 to 25 mg/wk- primarily for peripheral arthritis 5. Local Corticosteroids injection- for persistent synovitis and enthesopathy 6. Medications to avoid- Long term Systemic Corticosteroids, gold and Penicillamine 7. Anti-TNF-α therapy - heralded a revolution in the management of AS. Infliximab (chimeric human/mouse anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody) Etanercept (soluble p75 TNF-α receptor–IgG fusion protein) have shown rapid, profound, and sustained reductions in all clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity.

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