“cervical cancer is the cancer of
(from the Latin cervix uteri, meaning "neck of the womb")
the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the
top end of the vagina.
ANATOMY OF CERVIX:
The ectocervix (more
distal, by the vagina) is
The endocervix (more
proximal, within the
uterus) is composed of
The area adjacent to the
border of the endocervix
and ectocervix is known
as the transformation
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer
that occurs in the cells of the cervix
. Various strains of the human
papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually
Cervical cancer is a malignant
tumors deriving from cells of the
cervix & Cervical cancer is a disease
that develops quite slowly, means
it develops in stages.
WHAT IS THE CERVICAL
There are two main types of cervical cancer
Squamous cell cancer “SSC”(80-85%)
There are also other, less common types of cancer of the cervix,
known as adenosquamous carcinomas, clear-cell carcinomas and
Types Of Cervical
STAGES OF CERVICAL
Carcinoma in Situ
abnormal cells are found in the
innermost lining of the cervix. These
abnormal cells may become cancer
and spread into nearby normal
Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical cancer
WHAT IS HPV?
Human papillomavirus type 16 and 18
How is HPV related to cervical cancer?
Duration of HPV infections in
Can men get HPV?
Origin of HPV is still unknown
Is HPV preventable?
ROLE OF HPV:
(Human Papilloma Virus)
Abnormal vaginal bleeding, such as bleeding after sex
(vaginal intercourse), bleeding after menopause,
bleeding and spotting between periods, and having
longer or heavier (menstrual) periods than usual. Bleeding
after douching, or after a pelvic exam is a common symptom
of cervical cancer but not pre-cancer.
Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale,
watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul-smelling
An unusual discharge from the vagina − the discharge
may contain some blood and may occur between your
periods or after menopause.
Pain during sex (vaginal intercourse).
Cervical cancer may spread to the
bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver.
Often there are no problems until
the cancer is
advanced and has spread.
Bone pain or fractures
Leaking of urine or feces from
Loss of appetite
Single swollen leg
Symptoms Of Advanced
These factors may increase your
risk of cervical cancer:
Many sexual partners.
Early sexual activity.
A weak immune system.
Use of Oral Contraceptives
Dr Ghazala Mehmood, a gynecologist at Pakistan Institute of
Medical Sciences; addressing at a seminar titled "Cervical
Cancer is Preventable" organized by Health Awareness. She
“ In every 2 minutes, one woman loses her life due to cervical cancer
worldwide as 500,000 cases and over 270,000 deaths have been reported
annually. cervical cancer is the second most prevalent and the third leading
cause of cancer deaths among women, adding that Pakistan was rated 3rd
with 11688 cases registered in 2008 where as Bangladesh stood 1st and India
Professor of Pediatrics at Child Hospital PIMS, Dr Tabish Hazir
while addressing the seminar. He said,
“Pakistan has moved from low risk to moderate-risk country for cervical
cancer with gradually increasing cases with 19.5 per 100,000 in 2008 as
compared to 9 per 100,000 in previous years.”
Ratio Of Cervical
Cervical cancer screening
It is a way to detect abnormal cervical cells, including
precancerous cervical lesions, as well as early cervical cancers.
Pap test or Pap smear;
Can detect epithelial cell abnormalities
Atypical squamous cells
Squamous intraepithelial lesions
Squamous cell carcinoma
(likely to be invasive)
Limitations of the Pap test
No screening test is 100% accurate, however the Pap test has been shown to be
an effective tool for preventing cervical cancer.
Get a regular Pap smear
Limit the amount of sexual partners
Quit smoking or avoid secondhand smoke
If you have married life, use condoms
Get the HPV vaccine
Avoid long term OCP
Use physical barrier for safe sex