cervical cancer ,,, 4 college students..


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cervical cancer ,,, 4 college students..

  1. 1. Mehwish Noreen
  2. 2. “cervical cancer is the cancer of cervix” INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. (from the Latin cervix uteri, meaning "neck of the womb") the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. Ectocervix External Os Endocervical Canal Internal Os ANATOMY OF CERVIX:
  4. 4. Histology:  The ectocervix (more distal, by the vagina) is composed of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.  The endocervix (more proximal, within the uterus) is composed of simple columnar epithelium  The area adjacent to the border of the endocervix and ectocervix is known as the transformation zone Cervical mucus Cervical position Function
  5. 5. Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix . Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection Or Cervical cancer is a malignant tumors deriving from cells of the cervix & Cervical cancer is a disease that develops quite slowly, means it develops in stages. WHAT IS THE CERVICAL CANCER??
  6. 6. There are two main types of cervical cancer  Squamous cell cancer “SSC”(80-85%)  Adenocarcinoma “ACC”(15-20%) There are also other, less common types of cancer of the cervix, known as adenosquamous carcinomas, clear-cell carcinomas and small-cell carcinomas. Types Of Cervical Cancer:
  7. 7. STAGES OF CERVICAL CANCER: Carcinoma in Situ (Stage 0) abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the cervix. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.
  8. 8. Stage I  Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer  Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical cancer
  9. 9. Stage II
  10. 10. Stage III Stage IIIA: Stage IIIB:
  11. 11. Stage IV Stage IVA: Stage IVB:
  12. 12. WHAT IS HPV? Human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 How is HPV related to cervical cancer? Duration of HPV infections in young women Can men get HPV? Origin of HPV is still unknown Is HPV preventable? ROLE OF HPV: (Human Papilloma Virus)
  13. 13.  Abnormal vaginal bleeding, such as bleeding after sex (vaginal intercourse), bleeding after menopause,  bleeding and spotting between periods, and having longer or heavier (menstrual) periods than usual. Bleeding after douching, or after a pelvic exam is a common symptom of cervical cancer but not pre-cancer.  Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul-smelling  An unusual discharge from the vagina − the discharge may contain some blood and may occur between your periods or after menopause.  Pain during sex (vaginal intercourse). Symptoms:
  14. 14. Cervical cancer may spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. Often there are no problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread.  Back pain  Bone pain or fractures  Fatigue  Leaking of urine or feces from the vagina  Leg pain  Loss of appetite  Pelvic pain  Single swollen leg  Weight loss Symptoms Of Advanced Cervical Cancer
  15. 15. These factors may increase your risk of cervical cancer:  Many sexual partners. Early sexual activity. A weak immune system. Cigarette smoking. Family History Use of Oral Contraceptives Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Risk factors:
  16. 16. Dr Ghazala Mehmood, a gynecologist at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences; addressing at a seminar titled "Cervical Cancer is Preventable" organized by Health Awareness. She said, “ In every 2 minutes, one woman loses her life due to cervical cancer worldwide as 500,000 cases and over 270,000 deaths have been reported annually. cervical cancer is the second most prevalent and the third leading cause of cancer deaths among women, adding that Pakistan was rated 3rd with 11688 cases registered in 2008 where as Bangladesh stood 1st and India 2nd worldwide.” Professor of Pediatrics at Child Hospital PIMS, Dr Tabish Hazir while addressing the seminar. He said, “Pakistan has moved from low risk to moderate-risk country for cervical cancer with gradually increasing cases with 19.5 per 100,000 in 2008 as compared to 9 per 100,000 in previous years.” Ratio Of Cervical Cancer:
  17. 17. Cervical cancer screening It is a way to detect abnormal cervical cells, including precancerous cervical lesions, as well as early cervical cancers. Pap test or Pap smear; Can detect epithelial cell abnormalities  Atypical squamous cells  Squamous intraepithelial lesions  Squamous cell carcinoma (likely to be invasive) Limitations of the Pap test No screening test is 100% accurate, however the Pap test has been shown to be an effective tool for preventing cervical cancer. Diagnosis:
  18. 18. Additional diagnostic testingColposcopy Cervical Biopsies Cone biopsy Endocervical curettage
  19. 19. Surgery of Preinvasive cervical cancer • Cryosurgery • Laser surgery • Cervical conization Treatments
  20. 20.  Invasive cervical cancer surgery *Simple hysterectomy *Radiation
  21. 21. Radical hysterectomy Chemotherapy
  22. 22. Get a regular Pap smear Limit the amount of sexual partners Quit smoking or avoid secondhand smoke If you have married life, use condoms Get the HPV vaccine Avoid long term OCP Use physical barrier for safe sex Preventions: