Unit 6-Victorianism


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Unit 6-Victorianism

  1. 1. Course Title: Poetry Course Code & NO.: LANE 447 Course Credit Hrs.: 3 weekly Level: 7th Level Students Victorianism Alfred Lord Tennyson’s “Ulysses” Emily Dickinson’s “A Bird Came Down the Walk” Thomas Hardy’s “The Darkling Thrush”Instructor: Dr. Noora Al-MalkiCredits of images and online content are to their original owners.
  2. 2. This Presentation• Discusses characteristics of Victorian poetry.• Presents a survey of the poetry written by some of the major Victorian poets (British & American) of the 19th C.• Focuses on the presentation of themes related philosophical/psychological representation of human nature and nature. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 2 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  3. 3. Victorianism 1830-1900 Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 3 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  4. 4. Victorianism 1830-1900•rapid and unpredictable change (progress)•economies of Europe expanded and accelerated•emergence of “middle class,”•scientific advancements vs. church law•poverty (working classes)•women had no rightshttp://www.english.uwosh.edu/roth/VictorianEngland.htmhttp://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/victorian/welcome.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_era Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 4 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  5. 5. Victorianism 1830-1900 Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 5 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  6. 6. Victorian Poetry 1830-1900Romantic poetry Victorian poetryEscapist – Abstract realistic & down to earthInterest in nature & imagination utilitarian (practical)Subject matter: personal – Subject matter: socialexpression of inner emotionsStyle: simplicity of languages, Style: inventiveness andclarity of images experimentation with different styles to achieve psychological realismhttp://www.bachelorandmaster.com/literaryterms/victorian-poetry.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_literature Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 6 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  7. 7. Victorian Poets 1830-1900Alfred Lord Tennyson- Simple economy of verse- reclaimed the pastThomas Hardy (basically novelist)- key forerunner of the Modernist Movement in literature- created desolate, hopeless worlds where life had very littlemeaning- questioned the relevance of modern institutions, in particularorganized religion- unusual use of languageRobert and Elizabeth Browning (a couple)Emily Dickinson (American Romantic) Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 7 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  8. 8. Lord Tennyson (1892–1809) Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 8 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  9. 9. UlyssesDr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 9eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  10. 10. UlyssesFirst true Dramatic Monologue addressed to an unknownaudienceDramatic monologues are a way of expressing the views of acharacter and offering the audience greater insight into thatcharacters feelings.Origins: Greek (Homer’s Iliad & Odyssey) Italian (Dante’s Inferno)Subject: Ulysses (The Greek Odysseus) desire to roam the worldand not be put down by his old age. It represents the chivalourousspirit."To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield". Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 10 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  11. 11. UlyssesUlyssesIt little profits that an idle king,By this still hearth, among these barren crags,Matchd with an aged wife, I mete and doleUnequal laws unto a savage race,That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.I cannot rest from travel; I will drinkLife to the lees. All times I have enjoydGreatly, have sufferd greatly, both with thoseThat loved me, and alone; on shore, and whenThro scudding drifts the rainy HyadesVext the dim sea. I am become a name;For always roaming with a hungry heartMuch have I seen and known,-- cities of menAnd manners, climates, councils, governments, Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 11 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  12. 12. UlyssesMyself not least, but honord of them all,--And drunk delight of battle with my peers,Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy.I am a part of all that I have met;Yet all experience is an arch wherethroGleams that untravelld world whose margin fadesFor ever and for ever when I move.How dull it is to pause, to make an end,To rust unburnishd, not to shine in use!As tho to breathe were life! Life piled on lifeWere all too little, and of one to meLittle remains; but every hour is saved>From that eternal silence, something more, Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 12 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  13. 13. UlyssesA bringer of new things; and vile it wereFor some three suns to store and hoard myself,And this gray spirit yearning in desireTo follow knowledge like a sinking star,Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.This is my son, mine own Telemachus,to whom I leave the sceptre and the isle,--Well-loved of me, discerning to fulfillThis labor, by slow prudence to make mildA rugged people, and thro soft degreesSubdue them to the useful and the good.Most blameless is he, centred in the sphereOf common duties, decent not to failIn offices of tenderness, and pay Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 13 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  14. 14. UlyssesMeet adoration to my household gods,When I am gone. He works his work, I mine.There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail;There gloom the dark, broad seas. My mariners,Souls that have toild, and wrought, and thought with me,--That ever with a frolic welcome tookThe thunder and the sunshine, and opposedFree hearts, free foreheads,-- you and I are old;Old age hath yet his honor and his toil.Death closes all; but something ere the end,Some work of noble note, may yet be done,Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods.The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks; Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 14 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  15. 15. UlyssesThe long day wanes; the slow moon climbs; the deepMoans round with many voices. Come, my friends.T is not too late to seek a newer world.Push off, and sitting well in order smiteThe sounding furrows; for my purpose holdsTo sail beyond the sunset, and the bathsOf all the western stars, until I die.It may be that the gulfs will wash us down;It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,And see the great Achilles, whom we knew.Tho much is taken, much abides; and thoWe are not now that strength which in old daysMoved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are,--One equal temper of heroic hearts,Made weak by time and fate, but strong in willTo strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 15 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  16. 16. Ulysses1- Trace the representation of the hero in Tennyson’s“Ulysses”. Take note of how the form (Dramatic monologue)helps in uncovering such representation.2- Write a short note on how “Ulysses” perceives his family. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 16 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  17. 17. Emily Dickinson (1830–1886)-one of the most original 19th Century Americanpoets-She used unconventional broken rhyming meter- She had a peculiar way of using dashes andrandom capitalization- creative use of metaphorThis Is My Letter To The WorldThis is my letter to the world,That never wrote to me,--The simple news that Nature told,With tender majesty.Her message is committedTo hands I cannot see;For love of her, sweet countrymen,Judge tenderly of me! Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 17 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  18. 18. In the GardenA bird came down the walk:He did not know I saw;He bit an angle-worm in halvesAnd ate the fellow, raw.And then he drank a dewFrom a convenient grass,And then hopped sidewise to the wallTo let a beetle pass.He glanced with rapid eyesThat hurried all abroad,--They looked like frightened beads, I thought;He stirred his velvet head Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 18 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  19. 19. In the GardenLike one in danger; cautious,I offered him a crumb,And he unrolled his feathersAnd rowed him softer homeThan oars divide the ocean,Too silver for a seam,Or butterflies, off banks of noon,Leap, plashless, as they swim. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 19 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  20. 20. In the Garden Explication"bizarre little narrative"This is the finest example of Dickinson’s nature verse, for itperfectly juxtaposes elements of superficial gentility against theinner barbarity that characterizes the workings of the world. Thenarrator chances to see a bird walking along a pathway, but justas the scene appears perfect, the bird seizes upon a worm,bites it in two, and devours it. The bird drinks some dew onnearby grass (note the alternate for a drinking “glass”), thengraciously steps aside, right to a wall, to allow a beetle to pass. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 20 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  21. 21. In the Garden ExplicationThe bird, like one fearful of being caught in an unacceptableaction, glances around quickly with darting eyes.“Cautious” describes both the demeanor of the bird and that ofthe observing narrator. Both feel threatened, the bird of thepossible consequences of its savagery, the narrator becauseshe is next on the bird’s path. She “offered him a Crumb,” notbecause she admires the bird but out of fear and expediency.The bird, sensing that it has escaped any potentially harmfulconsequences for what it has done, struts a bit as “he unrolledhis feathers” and “rowed him softer home—.” Ironically, its walkis too casual, softer than oars dividing a seamless ocean orbutterflies leaping into noon’s banks, all without a splash.Behind its soft, charming, and genteel facade, nature ismenacing, and its hypocritical attempts to conceal its barbarismmake it more frightening.http://salempress.com/store/pdfs/dickinson.pdf Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 21 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  22. 22. Thomas Hardy 1840-1928-Novelist & poet- ironic poems- nature as setting and as inspiration forpoetry Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 22 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  23. 23. Darkling ThrushI leant upon a coppice gateWhen Frost was spectre-gray,And Winters dregs made desolateThe weakening eye of day.The tangled bine-stems scored the skyLike strings of broken lyres,And all mankind that haunted nighHad sought their household fires.The lands sharp features seemed to beThe Centurys corpse outleant,His crypt the cloudy canopy,The wind his death-lament.The ancient pulse of germ and birthWas shrunken hard and dry,And every spirit upon earthSeemed fervourless as I. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 23 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  24. 24. Darkling ThrushAt once a voice arose amongThe bleak twigs overheadIn a full-hearted evensongOf joy illimited;An aged thrush, frail, gaunt, and small,In blast-beruffled plume,Had chosen thus to fling his soulUpon the growing gloom.So little cause for carolingsOf such ecstatic soundWas written on terrestrial thingsAfar or nigh around,That I could think there trembled throughHis happy good-night airSome blessed Hope, whereof he knewAnd I was unaware. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 24 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  25. 25. Darkling Thrush- "The Darkling Thrush" was originally called "The CenturysEnd, 1900” because it was written on the Eve of the 20th C.-It describes an encounter with a frail bird which sings andawakens the speaker to new possibilities.-Apparently, the speaker is an aged and tired persona.-The setting of the poem during winter also testifies to the old,dying age.- Thematically, the poem explores the signs of progress into the20th C which were frightening as well as promising for Hardy. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 25 eaglenoora@yahoo.com
  26. 26. “In the Garden” VS. “The Darkling Thrush” Compare and contrast the representation of nature in Dickinson’s “In the Garden” and Hardy’s “The Darkling Thrush” Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 26 eaglenoora@yahoo.com