Personality Psychologists study personality from many directions:1. Developmental psychologists study personality acrossthe life span.2. Biological psychologists look for nature’s influence onpersonality.3. Health psychologists research the effect of personalityon well-being
Personality What is personality? An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling,and acting.Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality; also, atherapeutic technique that attempts to provide insight intothoughts and actions by exposing and interpreting theunderlying unconscious motives and conflicts.
SIGMUND FRUED An Austrian physician who proposedpsychology’s first and most famoustheory of personality. Freud believedthat an individual’s personality—theperson’s characteristic thoughts andbehaviors—emerges from tensionsgenerated by unconscious motives andunresolved childhood conflicts.
Psychoanalysis Hypnosis is a social interaction inwhich one person—the hypnotist—makes forceful suggestions to anotherperson that certain events orresponses will occur.free association: A method of exploringthe unconscious in which the personrelaxes and says whatever comes tomind, no matter how trivial orembarrassing.
Psychoanalysis Id: The part of personality that, according to Freud, consists ofunconscious, psychic energy and strives to satisfy basic drives;operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediategratification. superego: The part of personality that, according toFreud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards forjudgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. ego: The largely conscious, “executive” part of personalitythat, according to Freud, negotiates among the demands of theid, the superego, and reality; operates on the realityprinciple, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realisticallybring pleasure rather than pain.
Assessing Personality- Projective Test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): A projective testin which people express their inner feelings and intereststhrough the stories they make up about ambiguousscenes. Rorschach inkblot test: The most widely usedprojective test is a set of 10 inkblots designed to identifypeople’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretationsof the blots.
The Humanistic Perspective Humanistic psychology: A perspective that focuses onthe study of:- conscious experience,- the individual’s freedom to choose, and- the individual’s capacity for personal growth.Humanistic psychologists thought psychology in the1960s was ignoring human strengths andvirtues. Freud studied the motives of “sick”people, those who came to him with psychologicalproblems.
Abraham Maslow and Self-Actualizationself-actualization: According to Maslow, anultimate psychologicalneed that arises afterbasic physical andpsychological needs aremet and self-esteem isachieved; themotivation to realizeour full and uniquepotential.
Carl Rogers and the Person-CenteredApproach Carl Rogers (1902–1987): Humanistic psychologistwho developed client-centered therapy and stressed theimportance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy infostering human growth. unconditional positive regard: According to Rogers,an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
Assessing Personality and theSelf self-concept: All our thoughts andfeelings about ourselves in answerto the question “Who am I? Humanistic psychologists believedthat the way you describe yourself(“actual self”) and the way you’dlike to describe yourself (“idealself”) should overlap. They thoughtthe more they overlap, the betteryou feel about yourself.
Evaluating the HumanisticPerspectiveSome people have mistakenly interpretedunconditional positive regard for children asmeaning that we should never offer constructivecriticism to a child—or worse, never tell a childno. Critics also point out that many humanisticterms are vague and hard to define precisely sothat other researchers can test them.