What is Classical Conditioning?• learning: A relatively permanent change in behaviorcaused by experience.• classical conditioning: A type of learning in which astimulus gains the power to cause a response• stimulus: Anything in the environment that one canrespond to.• Classical conditioning is learning in which a stimulusgains the power to cause a response because it predictsanother stimulus that already produces the response.
Four Main Components of ClassicalConditioning• Unconditioned stimulus (US)—The US is a stimulus that triggers a responsereflexively and automatically, just as scalding water in a shower makes someonejump away.• Unconditioned response (UR)—The UR is the automatic response to the US. Ifhot water is the US, jumping away is the UR. Again, notice that the relationshipbetween the US and the UR is reflexive and automatic, not learned.• Conditioned stimulus (CS)—The CS is a previously neutral stimulus that, throughlearning, gains the power to cause a (conditioned) response. On my first day inthe dorm, the word flush was a neutral stimulus—I did not associate it withshowers, and it did not make me jump away.In basic classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus and the CS are always thesame thing. The term neutral stimulus describes the stimulus before conditioning,and the term CS describes the stimulus after conditioning.• Conditioned response (CR)—The CR is the response to the CS. In basic classicalconditioning, it is the same behavior that is identified as the UR. If I jump becauseof hot water (a US), my jumping is a UR. However, if I have learned to jump whensomeone yells, “Flush!” (a CS), my jumping is now a CR.
US UR CS CR• What is the Unconditioned Stimulus (US)?• What is the Unconditioned Response (UR)?• What is neutral stimulus? (This will later become the ___stimulus).• What is the Conditioned Stimulus (CS)?• What is the Conditioned Response?• [Notice that salivation can be either the UR or the CR, depending onwhat stimulus led to the salivation.]
Classical Conditioning Processes• Acquisition: the process of developing a new, learnedresponse. Acquisition occurs when a neutral stimulus isrepeatedly paired with a US. Each pairing is called a trial.• Once acquired, the CR will be maintained only if the CScontinues to be paired with the US on some trials.• Extinction: is the diminishing of a learned response.Extinction occurs as the CS loses its power to trigger aCR.• When we want someone to acquire a CR, we repeatedlypair a neutral stimulus with the US. But if we want toreverse this learning, we must weaken the strength of theassociation between the two stimuli. We do this byrepeatedly presenting the CS alone.
Generalization and Discrimination• Generalization occurs when an organism produces thesame response to two similar stimuli.If chemicals look toosimilar to food and drinkpackaging, a child maygeneralize and ingestdangerous products.
Generalization and Discrimination (cont)• Discrimination (classical conditioning): In classicalconditioning, the ability to distinguish between two signalsor stimuli and produce different responses.• You may have learned, for example, to respond withanxiety (CR) to a particular tone of voice (CS) used byyour parent when that tone, in the past, had repeatedlybeen followed by an outburst of anger (US). On the otherhand, your parent may have used a slightly different toneof voice when expressing mock anger. In this case, youprobably learned to discriminate between the two and tonot become anxious when hearing the tone associatedwith mock anger.
Did You Flinch?The US is the explosion of the popped balloon. The UR is the flinch produced bythe pop. The CS is the sight of the pin approaching the balloon. The CR is the flinchproduced by the sight of the pin approaching the balloon.
Home Work (25 pts)Due May 1st 2013• Research the experiment conducted by John Watson andRosalie Rayner. They used the principles of classicalconditioning to create a learned fear.• Its famously known as “Conditioning Little Albert”• Write a 1-2 page paper describing the experiment, labelthe US, UR, neutral stimulus, CS, and CR.• Answer the following questions:• What can we conclude from Watson and Rayner’s research?• Give 2 examples from everyday experience where you seeclassical conditioning taking place.Bonus: What happened to Little Albert, what do we know of himtoday?
OPERANT CONDITIONING• A type of learning in which the frequency of a behaviordepends on the consequence that follows that behavior.• Law of effect:• behaviors with favorable consequences will occur more frequentlyand behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences will occurless frequently.Reinforcement: is any consequence that increases the futurelikelihood of a behavior.Punishment: is any consequence that decreases the future likelihoodof a behavior.
TWO KEY PSYCHOLOGISTs• EDWARD THORNDIKE(1874–1949) Author of the law of effect, the principle thatforms the basis of operant conditioning.• B. F. SKINNER(1904– 1990) Behavioral psychologist who developed thefundamental principles and techniques of operantconditioning and devised ways to apply them in the realworld.
Thispigeon in a Skinner box, or operant chamber, has been taught to peck a key for foodreinforcement
Reinforcement• What are the different kinds of reinforcement?• There are two ways to reinforce a behavior: positivereinforcement and negative reinforcement.• Positive reinforcement is anything that increases thelikelihood of a behavior by following it with a desirableevent or state.• Negative reinforcement is anything that increases thelikelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal ofan undesirable event or state.
Immediate Versus DelayedReinforcement• Immediate reinforcement is more effective than delayedreinforcement.• IMMEDIATE OR DELYAED:• “Warning: If you smoke these cigarettes, your breath willsmell awful for the rest of the day!”• Humans and delayed Gratification.
Punishement• Positive punishment is anything that decreases thelikelihood of a behavior by following it with an undesirableevent or state.• Negative punishment is anything that decreases thelikelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal ofa desirable event or state.