Civilian Protection and Violence Prevention with Local Communities in Conflict Areas

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A presentation prepared by Nonviolent Peaceforce for the United Nations (UN). For more information, visit http://www.nonviolentpeaceforce.org.

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Civilian Protection and Violence Prevention with Local Communities in Conflict Areas

  1. 1. Civilian Protection and Violence Prevention with Local Communities in Conflict Areas A One-Day Course in Unarmed Civilian Protection for the UN Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action UN Quaker House, New York 15 June 2011
  2. 2. Beginning the Journey Together
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Representatives of the UN Interagency Framework Team for Preventative Action have awareness regarding the key concepts of UCP, what makes it work, and how it is practically implemented in areas of violent conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Representatives gain appreciation for the field of UCP as a viable option for protecting civilians and reducing violence in areas of violent conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Representatives reflect and discuss how UCP may apply to the work of their agencies in the field and/or how their agencies could support others involved directly in UCP work. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Representatives understand the potential role civil society can play in the protection of civilians and the prevention of violent conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Agenda for the Day TIME TITLE OF SESSION OBJECTIVE 9:00-10:45 The Basics and Principles of UCP Participants understand the general nature of UCP, its major components, why it works, and the primary foundations it rests upon. 10:45-11:00 Break 11:00-13:00 The Core of UCP Work Participants understand the proactive and reactive dimensions of UCP work, its core functions, and the key strategies it employs. 13:00-14:00 Lunch 14:00-16:00 Understanding How UCP Works in Practice Participants understand the key activities of UCP and implement them in practice. 16:00-16:15 Break 16:15-17:30 Integrating Lessons Learned Participants reflect on how UCP can be integrated into their own work and/or better supported in the work of others, and identify potential roads forward for continued collaboration.
  5. 5. Experiential Pedagogy 1. EXPERIENCE 2. REFLECT 3. CONTEXTUALISE 4. ACT
  6. 6. The Basics of Unarmed Civilian Protection What it is and Why it Works
  7. 7. The Purpose of Unarmed Civilian Protection
  8. 8. What is Unarmed Civilian Protection? <ul><li>Unarmed Civilian Protection is the organised , strategic use of various nonviolent tactics - by unarmed civilians themselves - to deter violence, influence important actors in their community, and create safe political space where people feel encouraged to transform their own conflicts constructively. </li></ul>
  9. 9. UCP is… Not disorganised individuals showing up without a plan, thinking only their presence is enough. Organised teams strategically implementing proven tactics for protecting civilians and reducing violence. Not well-intentioned volunteers working against “oppressors” and naively sticking flowers in gun barrels. Well-trained professionals working proactively with key stakeholders on all levels to increase security of all people Not white people from the global North holding threatened peoples’ hands so they do not get shot. Security-conscious international/multi-cultural teams working and living within communities affected by violence and supporting them to increase their own security. Not an add-on to an already over-burdened work day or something done indirectly while passing out food. A specific, focused activity, based on lessons learned and compelling practices
  10. 10. Unarmed Civilian Protection PROACTIVE PRESENCE Encouragement Deterrence Influence Nonviolence Independence Primacy of Internal Conflict Actors Nonpartisanship Human Rights Confidence Building Conscious Visibility Protection Capacity Building Multi-Level Diplomacy
  11. 11. Small Group Work Nonviolence without Security is… Security without Nonviolence is…
  12. 12. 1. WHO WE ARE Understanding of Mission and Key Organisational Characteristics--e.g. The UCP Tree 5. HOW WE DO IT Process for Security Incidents and Early Warning Reporting and Analysis 4. WHAT WE DO NP Security Planning Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) & Contingency Planning 2. WHERE WE ARE Security Contextual Analysis & Security Situational Analysis 3. WHY WE DO WHAT WE DO Security Strategies (AAAMAP) GMS Good Management System for Staff Security and Safety UCP requires a higher threshold of risk and employs Active/Interactive Security based on Relationships , not Preventative Measures
  13. 13. Unarmed Civilian Protection PROACTIVE PRESENCE Encouragement Deterrence Influence Nonviolence Independence Primacy of Internal Conflict Actors Nonpartisanship Human Rights Confidence Building Conscious Visibility Protection Capacity Building Multi-Level Diplomacy
  14. 14. 1. Understand that UCP’s are partial: (e.g. towards human rights, security of all people, peaceful resolution of conflicts, etc.). Cannot be afraid of the values and mission underlying the work. 2. Separate violent actions committed from the people who commit those actions (problems vs. people). 3. Work transparently (key stakeholders know what we are doing) while maintaining the confidentiality of those we serve. 4. Strive for ACCEPTANCE and strategic connection from all key stakeholders. 5. Adhere to the 3rd Principle of UCP: Primacy of Internal Conflict Actors (i.e. It’s not about what we want, it’s our job to create the space for internal actors to achieve what they want.) Lesson Learned from Implementing Nonpartisanship in the Field
  15. 15. Unarmed Civilian Protection PROACTIVE PRESENCE Encouragement Deterrence Influence Nonviolence Independence Primacy of Internal Conflict Actors Nonpartisanship Human Rights Confidence Building Conscious Visibility Protection Capacity Building Multi-Level Diplomacy
  16. 16. Unarmed Civilian Protection REACTIVE PROACTIVE Dimensions of UCP
  17. 17. The Basics of Unarmed Civilian Protection The Core of UCP & How it Works in Practice
  18. 18. What is Proactive Presence? Proactive Presence = Trained field staff combining multiple strategies to positively influence the dynamics of violence against civilians on the ground. (Means PROACTIVE ) “ What is needed…is not passive presence for its own sake, but well informed and carefully analysed strategies and tactics that use the presence of each [UCP] to influence all the actors around them.” -Liam Mahoney
  19. 19. MPT The Functions of Proactive Presence Proactive Presence Deterrence Influence Encouragement
  20. 20. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? DETERRENCE Decision Makers (Worried about Int’l Image) Perpetrators of Violence (Worried about witnesses) Targeted Civilians Chain of Command International Pressure X
  21. 21. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? DETERRENCE Decision Makers (Worried about Int’l Image) Perpetrators of Violence (Worried about witnesses) Targeted Civilians Chain of Command International Pressure “ It’s not really me.”
  22. 22. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? DETERRENCE Decision Makers (Worried about Int’l Image) Perpetrators of Violence (Worried about witnesses) Targeted Civilians Chain of Command International Pressure X X
  23. 23. MPT Defining Political Space High Risk: Inaccessible Political Space Acceptable Risk : Accessible Political Space Inhibitions Dangerous Risks Line of Perception How Does Proactive Presence Work? ENCOURAGEMENT
  24. 24. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? ENCOURAGEMENT Increasing Political Space High Risk: Inaccessible Political Space Acceptable Risk : Accessible Political Space Inhibitions Dangerous Risks Line of Perception Effect of Proactive Presence
  25. 25. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? ENCOURAGEMENT Increasing Political Space High Risk: Inaccessible Political Space Acceptable Risk : Accessible Political Space Inhibitions Dangerous Risks Line of Perception Effect of Proactive Presence
  26. 26. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? Influence
  27. 27. MPT Limits to Proactive Presence <ul><li>Effectiveness is based on the acceptance of UCP’s from conflict actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Being present and being visible is the foundation of this technique, but does not provide protection in and of itself unless it is used strategically and, if acceptance fails, can be backed up by credible pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Credible pressures must be based on careful research which identifies who is causing the threat and what kinds of pressure they may be susceptible to. </li></ul><ul><li>There must be real power and influence behind the pressure for it to be credible: i.e. political, economic, legal, religious, cultural or social pressure such as disrupting tourism, indictment by a court or tribunal, imposing economic sanctions, canceling contracts or investment or aid packages. </li></ul><ul><li>There must be direct lines of communication open to the perpetrators somewhere along their chain of command in order for pressure to be effectively applied. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Unarmed Civilian Protection PROACTIVE PRESENCE Encouragement Deterrence Influence Nonviolence Independence Primacy of Internal Conflict Actors Nonpartisanship Human Rights Confidence Building Conscious Visibility Protection Capacity Building Multi-Level Diplomacy
  29. 29. Key UCP Activities Conscious Visibility Multi-Level Diplomacy Protection Confidence Building Capacity Building Facilitation of Safe Access to Government Mechanisms Forums/Meetings for State Duty-Bearers and Vulnerable Communities Safe Travel Routes for Civilians Accompaniment/ Protective Presence for Vulnerable Individuals / HRDs / Community Workers Establishment and monitoring of protocols with government and military actors Coordination of security services for vulnerable civilians Community Conflict Early Warning Early Response Systems Collaborative security assessments, consultations, and trainings Support for Community Security Teams Community Conflict Resolution Facilitation Intentional presence during critical times Ceasefire Monitoring

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