INTRODUCTION• Framework = a particular system or “a set ofbeliefs, ideas or rules that is used as the basisfor making judgements, (or) decisions” (Oxford)• A framework also contains the set of methods,approaches, means and responsibilitiesnecessary for achieving the goals of the plan• The framework for a national tourism strategycan be identified in national tourismdevelopment plans
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLICY AND STRATEGY• Tourism policy = “a set of regulations,rules, guidelines, directives, anddevelopment/promotion objectives andstrategies that provide a framework withinwhich the collective and individualdecisions directly affecting long-termtourism development and the dailyactivities within a destination are taken”(Goeldner & Ritchie, 2006)
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLICY AND STRATEGY (2)• tourism policy essentially provides structure tokey areas of the tourism industry with its long-term and sustainable growth in mind• Policies for tourism can also provide direction interms of goals as to where the country wantstourism to go in the long-term and what theywish to achieve through tourism• The bottom line is that tourism policy “definesthe rules of the game” (Goeldner & Ritchie,2006)
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLICY AND STRATEGY (3)• Strategy (usually follows the policyformulation process) = a process ofdevising or employing plans to achievea certain goal/objective• goals need to be broken down into anumber of objectives & for eachobjective, a number of strategies aredeveloped for achieving the objective• See the two examples on pg51-53
IMPORTANCE OF POLICY• Developing world → tourism has historicallystarted without proper planning or policies inplace to direct, control and regulate the industry• Policies need to be focused and prioritised →planning for tourism development in this regardhas also largely been neglected• Planning = the “methods policy makers adopt toachieve tourism development objectives” (Dieke,2005) and is usually undertaken at national,regional and local levels
IMPORTANCE OF POLICY (2)• Policy formulation forms part and parcel of theplanning process → providing “a reference pointagainst which planning considerations should berelated. It provides parameters and guidelines tofacilitate future development in the tourism sector; inessence, a policy sets out the guidelines to achievetourism objectives” (Dieke, 2005)• Unplanned tourism development can lead to seriousnegative implications for tourism → can lead to atourism industry which has no real value oneconomic, social and environmental fronts and isunsustainable
THE POLICY FORMULATION PROCESS• The process of national tourism policyformulation should include the following twostages of government intervention:• The development of policy goals andobjectives, and• The formulation of strategies to implementthese objectives• Strategy framework = planning a number of keyactions in order to effectivelyimplement/achieve the policy goals andobjectives
GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN TOURISM POLICY MAKING• There are two types of government involvement:• Passive involvement:• Mandatory, e.g. in legislation• Supportive, but not specifically aimed at tourism• Active involvement:• Recognition of tourism as a priority by government(support for tourism)• Participation (managerial, for the development of tourism)• The four subdivisions of government involvement can beviewed as four interdependent and consecutive stagesrepresenting the growing responsibility of governmenttowards tourism.