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Elements of a Short Story


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Elements of a Short Story

  1. 1. What parts make up a story?
  2. 2. Plot Setting Characters Point of View Theme
  3. 3. Plot is what happensPlot is what happens and how it happens in aand how it happens in a narrative. A narrative isnarrative. A narrative is any work that tells aany work that tells a story, such as a shortstory, such as a short story, a novel, a drama,story, a novel, a drama, or a narrative poem.or a narrative poem.
  4. 4.  Exposition – event that gives rise to conflict (opening situation)  Rising Action- events that complicate or intensify the central conflict (rising action)  Climax- highest point of interest or emotional involvement in the story  Falling Action- logical result of Climax  Resolution- Final outcome of the story
  5. 5.  Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces  Every plot must contain some kind of conflict  Stories can have more than one conflict  Conflicts can be external or internal  External conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle  Internal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind
  6. 6. Conflict Exposition RisingAction Climax (often called the “Turning Point) FallingAction Resolution
  7. 7.  Suspense- excitement or tension  Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in story  Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past  Surprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not expect (use of irony)
  8. 8. Details that describe: Furniture Scenery Customs Transportation Clothing Dialects Weather Time of day Time of year Time and place are where the action occurs
  9. 9. Setting Place Atmosphere Time History EraLife Mood Weather Feelings Word Choice Location Physical Day Useasactivatortoactivatepriorknowledge.Write thewebontheboardoroverheadandstudents createoneattheirseats.Thenasclassshareandfill in.
  10. 10.  To create a mood or atmosphere  To show a reader a different way of life  To make action seem more real  To be the source of conflict or struggle  To symbolize an idea We left the home place behind, mile by slow mile, heading for the mountains, across the prairie where the wind blew forever. At first there were four of us with one horse wagon and its skimpy load. Pa and I walked, because I was a big boy of eleven. My two little sisters romped and trotted until they got tired and had to be boosted up to the wagon bed. That was no covered Conestoga, like Pa’s folks came West in, but just an old farm wagon, drawn by one weary horse, creaking and rumbling westward to the mountains, toward the little woods town where Pa thought he had an old uncle who owned a little two-bit sawmill. Taken from “The Day the Sun Came Out” by D. Johnson
  11. 11. People or animals Major characters Minor characters Round characters Flat characters
  12. 12. Character Main Flat Minor NotFully Developed FriendsRelatives Fully Developed Protagonist AntagonistCo-Main Enemy Others Round Flat
  13. 13.  A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.  Two primary methods of characterization: Direct- writer tells what the character is like Indirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character.
  14. 14. …And I don’t play the dozens or believe in standing around with somebody in my face doing a lot of talking. I much rather just knock you down and take my chances even if I’m a little girl with skinny arms and a squeaky voice, which is how I got the name Squeaky. From “Raymond’s Run” by T. Bambara
  15. 15. The old man bowed to all of us in the room. Then he removed his hat and gloves, slowly and carefully. Chaplin once did that in a picture, in a bank--he was the janitor. From “Gentleman of Rio en Medio” by J. Sedillo
  16. 16.  A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.  Two primary types of character: Flat- reveals only one or two traits. Round- reveals varied and sometimes contradictory traits.
  17. 17.  Physical appearance of character  Personality  Background/personal history  Motivation  Relationships  Conflict  Does character change?
  18. 18. A central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary work Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about life May be stated directly or implied Interpretation uncovers the theme
  19. 19. “Every man needs to feel allegiance to his native country, whether he always appreciates that country or not.” From “A Man Without a Country” by Edward Hale pg. 185 in Prentice Hall Literature book