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Formation of satellite systems
in a circum-planetary disk around gas giant planet


  Takanori Sasaki, Shigeru Ida (Tokyo Tech)
  Glen R. Stewart (U. Colorado)
What is the origin of the different architectures?

                  rocky       rocky         icy                                   icy, undiff.



                    Io       Europa     Ganymede                                           Callisto
               mutual mean motion resonances (MMR)

                                                 icy, undiff.
                    only one big body
                (~95% of total satellite mass)                                                                  Inside Titan. Global gravity field and sha
                                                                                                                pletely separated within Titan’s deep inte
                                                                                                                may contain a cold water-ammonia ocean
                                                                                                                water ice below (gray) and a floating ice/c
                                                                                                                images show that the extent of separation
                                                                                                                density that is predominantly affected by




                                                                Titan
                                                 dial ice-rock mixtures may display distinct
                                                 degrees of internal differentiation. Impact-
                                                 induced melting and/or intense tidal heating
                                                 of Ganymede, locked in orbital resonances
                                                 with the inner neighboring satellites Io and
                                                                                                    ries and gradual unmixing of ice and rock may
                                                                                                    also play a role for incomplete differentiation
                                                                                                    of icy satellites.
                                                                                                        References and Notes
                                                                                                     1. L. Iess et al., Science 327, 1367 (2010).
                                                 Europa, may have triggered runaway differ-          2. R. Jaumann et al., in Titan from Cassini-Huygens, R.H.
                                                                                                        Brown, J.-P. Lebreton, J. Hunter Waite, Eds. (Springer,
                                                 entiation, but Callisto farther out from Jupiter       New York, 2009), pp. 75–140.
Overview of this study

  Circum-Planetary Disk                  Satellite Formation
Canup & Ward, 2002, 2006             Ida & Lin, 2004, 2008
Satellites formed in c.-p. disk      Analytical solutions for
Actively-supplied accretion disk       accretion timescale
Supplied from circum-stellar disk      type I migration timescale
  → Analytical solution for T, Σ       trapping condition in MMR



            Adding New Ideas        Disk boundary conditions



Difference of Jovian/Saturnian systems is naturally reproduced?
Evolution of the infall rate onto the c.-p. disk

Fp [MJ/yr]
             Mdisk           Jupiter
                                              formation of
     10-5               transition to                        weak magnetic field
                        supply limit                         → no inner cavity
                     strong magnetic field                    Saturn
     10-6             → coupling with disk
                      → inner cavity                            formation of

                                                  residual
     10-7                                                              global
                                        gap opening                   depletion

                        massive, hot disk             faint, cool disk         t
                       with an inner cavity           without a cavity
Circum-planetary disk around Jupiter/Saturn

Jupiter

          inner cavity         opened up gap in c.-s. disk
                                 → infall to c.-p. disk stop abruptly


Saturn

             no cavity        did not open up gap in c.-s. disk
                              	

 → c.-p. disk decay with c.-s. disk

  Difference of “inner cavity” is from Königl (1991) and Stevenson (1974)
  Difference of gap conditions is from Ida & Lin (2004)
Jovian System




      inner cavity                           outer proto-satellite
    @corotation radius                   grow faster & migrate earlier

    Because the infall mass flux per unit area is constant,
    the total mass flux to satellite feeding zones is larger in outer regions.
Jovian System




         Type I migration is
      halted near the inner edge
                       The outer most satellite migrates and sweeps up
                       the inner small satellites.
Jovian System




                MMR



       Proto-satellites grow & migrate repeatedly
  They are trapped in MMR with the innermost satellite
Jovian System




      Total mass of the trapped satellites > Disk mass
         → the halting mechanism is not effective
        → Innermost satellite is released to the host planet
Jovian System




           after the gap opening → c.-p. disk deplete quickly
Saturnian System




     No inner cavity       outer proto-satellite
                       grow faster & migrate earlier
Saturnian System




              fall to Saturn


   Large proto-satellites migrate from the outer regions
   and fall to the host planet with inner smaller satellites
Saturnian System




             c.-p. disk depleted slowly
             with the decay of c.-s. disk
Monte Carlo Simulation (n=100)
	

 Parameters:
	

   	

   Disk viscosity (α model)   α = 10−3 − 10−2
	

   	

   Disk decay timescale        τin = 3 × 10 − 5 × 10
                                                    6         6 yr

	

   	

   Number of “satellite seeds” N = 10 − 20
Results: Distribution of the number of large satellites

                                       Jovian                               Saturnian
                          40                                       80
Total count of the case




                                                                   60

                          20                                       40

                                                                   20

                          0                                         0
                               0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7                          0   1   2   3   4
                                number of produced satellites

                          inner two bodies: rocky               icy satellite
                          & outer two bodies: icy               & large enough (~MTitan)
Results: Properties of produced satellite systems

                             Jovian                            Saturnian
        1e-3
                   Galilean Satellites
                                                             Titan
        1e-4
Ms/Mp




        1e-5                   rocky component
                               icy component
        1e-6
               0          10           20        30   0      10       20       30
                                a/Rp
        inner three bodies                       the largest satellite
        are trapped in MMR                       has ~90% of total satellite mass
Results: Other features of produced satellite systems

Callisto and Titan’s undifferentiated interior
  → accretion timescales > 5×105 years [Barr & Canup, 2008]
Accretion timescales in our simulations
 Callisto: 105-106 years
 Titan: >106 years
                                                          dial ice-rock mixtures may display distinct        ries and


Saturn’s ring formed from an ancient satellite at Roche Zone
                                                          degrees of internal differentiation. Impact-
                                                          induced melting and/or intense tidal heating
                                                          of Ganymede, locked in orbital resonances
                                                          with the inner neighboring satellites Io and
                                                                                                             also pla
                                                                                                             of icy s
                                                                                                                 Ref
                                                                                                              1. L. Ie



  → RRoche > RSynch is required [Charnoz et al., 2009]
                                                          Europa, may have triggered runaway differ-          2. R. Ja
                                                                                                                 Brow
                                                          entiation, but Callisto farther out from Jupiter       New
                                                          remained unaffected (11). Titan’s interior must     3. R. M
                                                          have stayed relatively cold and less dissipative    4. J. Lu
                                                          to avoid tidal heating and damping of Titan’s          R. H
                                                                                                                 (Spr
                                                          notable orbital eccentricity (12). Prolonged        5. G. To
                                                          accretion times farther away from their prima-      6. G. S




 Jovian: RRoche < RSynch                                  OCEANS


                                                          Interesting Times for
 Saturnian: RRoche > RSynch                               Louis A. Codispoti




 Uranian, Neptunian: RRoche < RSynch                      A
                                                                   lthough present in minute concentra-         Cru
                                                                   tions in Earth’s atmosphere, nitrous      ships b
                                                                   oxide (N2O) is a highly potent green-     their va
                                                          house gas (1). It is also becoming a key factor    Under w
                                                          in stratospheric ozone destruction (2). For the    produc
                                                          past ~400,000 years, changes in atmospheric        during
                                                          N2O appear to have roughly paralleled changes      NO2−).
                                                          in CO2 and to have had modest impacts on cli-      fiers m
                                                          mate (1), but this may change. Human activi-       cess re
Summary


• Jovian Satellite System v.s. Saturnian Satellite System
   Difference of size, number, location, and compositions

• Satellite Accretion/Migration in Circum-Planetary Disk
   Canup & Ward (2002, 2006) + Ida & Lin (2004, 2008)

• The Ideas of Disk Boundary Conditions
   Difference of inner cavity opening and gap opening conditions

• Monte Carlo Simulations
   Difference of Jovian/Saturnian system are naturally reproduced

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Tohoku100316

  • 1. Formation of satellite systems in a circum-planetary disk around gas giant planet Takanori Sasaki, Shigeru Ida (Tokyo Tech) Glen R. Stewart (U. Colorado)
  • 2. What is the origin of the different architectures? rocky rocky icy icy, undiff. Io Europa Ganymede Callisto mutual mean motion resonances (MMR) icy, undiff. only one big body (~95% of total satellite mass) Inside Titan. Global gravity field and sha pletely separated within Titan’s deep inte may contain a cold water-ammonia ocean water ice below (gray) and a floating ice/c images show that the extent of separation density that is predominantly affected by Titan dial ice-rock mixtures may display distinct degrees of internal differentiation. Impact- induced melting and/or intense tidal heating of Ganymede, locked in orbital resonances with the inner neighboring satellites Io and ries and gradual unmixing of ice and rock may also play a role for incomplete differentiation of icy satellites. References and Notes 1. L. Iess et al., Science 327, 1367 (2010). Europa, may have triggered runaway differ- 2. R. Jaumann et al., in Titan from Cassini-Huygens, R.H. Brown, J.-P. Lebreton, J. Hunter Waite, Eds. (Springer, entiation, but Callisto farther out from Jupiter New York, 2009), pp. 75–140.
  • 3. Overview of this study Circum-Planetary Disk Satellite Formation Canup & Ward, 2002, 2006 Ida & Lin, 2004, 2008 Satellites formed in c.-p. disk Analytical solutions for Actively-supplied accretion disk accretion timescale Supplied from circum-stellar disk type I migration timescale → Analytical solution for T, Σ trapping condition in MMR Adding New Ideas Disk boundary conditions Difference of Jovian/Saturnian systems is naturally reproduced?
  • 4. Evolution of the infall rate onto the c.-p. disk Fp [MJ/yr] Mdisk Jupiter formation of 10-5 transition to weak magnetic field supply limit → no inner cavity strong magnetic field Saturn 10-6 → coupling with disk → inner cavity formation of residual 10-7 global gap opening depletion massive, hot disk faint, cool disk t with an inner cavity without a cavity
  • 5. Circum-planetary disk around Jupiter/Saturn Jupiter inner cavity opened up gap in c.-s. disk → infall to c.-p. disk stop abruptly Saturn no cavity did not open up gap in c.-s. disk → c.-p. disk decay with c.-s. disk Difference of “inner cavity” is from Königl (1991) and Stevenson (1974) Difference of gap conditions is from Ida & Lin (2004)
  • 6. Jovian System inner cavity outer proto-satellite @corotation radius grow faster & migrate earlier Because the infall mass flux per unit area is constant, the total mass flux to satellite feeding zones is larger in outer regions.
  • 7. Jovian System Type I migration is halted near the inner edge The outer most satellite migrates and sweeps up the inner small satellites.
  • 8. Jovian System MMR Proto-satellites grow & migrate repeatedly They are trapped in MMR with the innermost satellite
  • 9. Jovian System Total mass of the trapped satellites > Disk mass → the halting mechanism is not effective → Innermost satellite is released to the host planet
  • 10. Jovian System after the gap opening → c.-p. disk deplete quickly
  • 11. Saturnian System No inner cavity outer proto-satellite grow faster & migrate earlier
  • 12. Saturnian System fall to Saturn Large proto-satellites migrate from the outer regions and fall to the host planet with inner smaller satellites
  • 13. Saturnian System c.-p. disk depleted slowly with the decay of c.-s. disk
  • 14. Monte Carlo Simulation (n=100) Parameters: Disk viscosity (α model) α = 10−3 − 10−2 Disk decay timescale τin = 3 × 10 − 5 × 10 6 6 yr Number of “satellite seeds” N = 10 − 20
  • 15. Results: Distribution of the number of large satellites Jovian Saturnian 40 80 Total count of the case 60 20 40 20 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 number of produced satellites inner two bodies: rocky icy satellite & outer two bodies: icy & large enough (~MTitan)
  • 16. Results: Properties of produced satellite systems Jovian Saturnian 1e-3 Galilean Satellites Titan 1e-4 Ms/Mp 1e-5 rocky component icy component 1e-6 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 a/Rp inner three bodies the largest satellite are trapped in MMR has ~90% of total satellite mass
  • 17. Results: Other features of produced satellite systems Callisto and Titan’s undifferentiated interior → accretion timescales > 5×105 years [Barr & Canup, 2008] Accretion timescales in our simulations Callisto: 105-106 years Titan: >106 years dial ice-rock mixtures may display distinct ries and Saturn’s ring formed from an ancient satellite at Roche Zone degrees of internal differentiation. Impact- induced melting and/or intense tidal heating of Ganymede, locked in orbital resonances with the inner neighboring satellites Io and also pla of icy s Ref 1. L. Ie → RRoche > RSynch is required [Charnoz et al., 2009] Europa, may have triggered runaway differ- 2. R. Ja Brow entiation, but Callisto farther out from Jupiter New remained unaffected (11). Titan’s interior must 3. R. M have stayed relatively cold and less dissipative 4. J. Lu to avoid tidal heating and damping of Titan’s R. H (Spr notable orbital eccentricity (12). Prolonged 5. G. To accretion times farther away from their prima- 6. G. S Jovian: RRoche < RSynch OCEANS Interesting Times for Saturnian: RRoche > RSynch Louis A. Codispoti Uranian, Neptunian: RRoche < RSynch A lthough present in minute concentra- Cru tions in Earth’s atmosphere, nitrous ships b oxide (N2O) is a highly potent green- their va house gas (1). It is also becoming a key factor Under w in stratospheric ozone destruction (2). For the produc past ~400,000 years, changes in atmospheric during N2O appear to have roughly paralleled changes NO2−). in CO2 and to have had modest impacts on cli- fiers m mate (1), but this may change. Human activi- cess re
  • 18. Summary • Jovian Satellite System v.s. Saturnian Satellite System Difference of size, number, location, and compositions • Satellite Accretion/Migration in Circum-Planetary Disk Canup & Ward (2002, 2006) + Ida & Lin (2004, 2008) • The Ideas of Disk Boundary Conditions Difference of inner cavity opening and gap opening conditions • Monte Carlo Simulations Difference of Jovian/Saturnian system are naturally reproduced