Solar Water Treatment In Nusa Penida


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Solar Water Treatment In Nusa Penida

  1. 1. Solar Water Treatment in Nusa Penida A solution to utilizing renewable energy for people benefit photo source: In 2007, PT. Energy Management Indonesia in cooperation with Directorate Electricity and Energy Utilization, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Republic of Indonesia has installed two units of Solar – Reverse Osmosis for Water Treatment in Banjar Angkal and Banjar Semaya, Nusa Penida Island. Until now, the units are still running and giving benefit to both villages. PT Energy Management Indonesia (Persero) Jl. Wolter Monginsidi no 6, Jakarta, Indonesia +62 21 7268881 +62 21 7268880
  2. 2. Solar Water Treatment in Nusa Penida A solution to utilizing renewable energy for people benefit By Noezran Azwar PT. Energy Management Indonesia (Persero) In 2007, PT. Energy Management Indonesia in cooperation with Directorate Electricity and Energy Utilization, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Republic of Indonesia has installed two units of Solar – Reverse Osmosis for Water Treatment in Banjar Angkal and Banjar Semaya, Nusa Penida Island. Until now, the units are still running and giving benefit to both villages. Foreword For archipelagos nation like Indonesia, electricity and water supply become a big challenge nowadays, especially for farther and smaller islands. Unfairly distributed population and extreme topographic contour in some areas often become causes of high investment for electricity and water grids development. Decentralized grid is one of the solutions and the government built small power generators for the islands, and most of them are diesel generators. Although these facilities built with smaller investment, they run with higher operation expenses and very dependent with diesel oil supply. The government, several years ago, introduces the utilization of local renewable energy resources for electricity generation. And, it is growing along these years. Besides giving more access to the electricity, renewable energy utilization also unequivocally improves living standards. In water supply sector, renewable energy technologies widely known has been utilized for pumping and water treatment purposes in many areas, especially in remote grids. Nusa Penida lies near Bali Island, but has less fortune compare to the neighbor. The island has hardly extreme contour from flat shorelines to rock-hills with cliffs. Most people are living along shore area. The island has also long dry season (6 – 9 months). Electricity mostly comes from diesel generators and available grid is mostly located in shore area and isolated from Bali Island. The communities usually use rainwater that they had save along rain season in reservoirs called “cubang” for drinking and cooking. Other water supply comes from home wells, but the water is
  3. 3. brackish. When they experience longer dry season, they use this brackish water. The wealthier ones bought mineral water in gallons for Rp. 18,000 to Rp. 20,000 (nearly 2 USD) per gallon (19 liter). In 2007, PT. Energy Management Indonesia installed two solar reversed osmosis units for water treatment in Banjar Angkal and Banjar Semaya, two small villages in Nusa Penida. Until now, the units are still running and giving benefit to both villages. Originality The origin of the idea is how to improve drinking water quality and how to make the solution be sustainable. As mentioned previously, the communities in Nusa Penida shore line experienced drinking water supply problem. The problem was hard to solve especially when long dry season. Available water supply comes from brackish water wells. The salts concentrate measured about 1500 mg/L which above Ministry of Health Drinking Water Quality Standard, but could be reduced with available reversed osmosis technology. The systems installed were consisting of submersible water pump reversed osmosis unit equipped by filtration and ultraviolet unit. Although there is available electricity grid nearby the installation sites, the power source of the water treatment systems comes from electricity generated by solar panels. Both systems were designed as off-grid. The idea comes from the community poor wealth condition that they could not be burden by extra electricity bills. Both systems were being managed by local cooperatives. They were selling the water at minimum price and the income was being used for O&M cost and dividend for the cooperatives. The project planned through techno-economic and socio-culture approach. In earlier stage of the project, the works were dominated by gathering much information through literature study and site survey. The survey mapped what were the needs of communities, what solutions should be offered, how to build communities awareness and get their participation, what would be the obstacles, etc. The information collected was analyzed to refine the work plan. The socialization of the project was the last stage before the construction and installation begin. The socialization introduced the idea of the project, offered solution, and yet to invite communities participation in the project works. In this phase, the communities were persuaded to utilize cooperatives for managing the operation and maintenance of installed systems. The concept of simple drinking water business was
  4. 4. introduced. The technical training for the operator was also conducted. The construction and installation of both systems conducted in 2 months. Environment and Social Consideration Environment The impact of a reversed osmosis unit to the environment usually is the brine water as the byproduct of the process. The government has stated the threshold of salt minerals concentration as total dissolved solid (TDS) in waste water disposed to the sea is 4000 mg/L (The State Ministry of Environment, Ministerial Decree no 4/2007). The water treatment systems were located in communities land nearby the coast (10 – 15m from shorelines). Raw water came from 7 – 10m depth wells. The salts concentrate measured in raw water as total dissolved solid (TDS) was about 1200 - 1500 mg/L. The reversed osmosis technology used in this project were using low pressure process, therefore not all the feed water being permeated through the membrane (about 10% of feed flow rate). The produced brine water then mixed with this bypass water and has TDS about 1600 to 2000 mg/L which still below government requirement. Since the systems were off-grid, there is avoided CO2 emission. Nusa Penida existing grid is mostly supplied by diesel generators. With this baseline and other technical assumptions, implementation of solar technology of 4.2 kilowatt peak can avoid minimum 15 – 20 tones of CO2 annually for each water treatment system. Socio-culture Almost all people in Nusa Penida devote to Bali-Hindu religion and hold it as their culture. They have two rural administration in-effects. One is official administration (government) called Desa and the other is traditional-culture system called Banjar. Although Banjar is only based on Bali-Hindu culture, it has stronger influence in people daily activities. And almost all community decisions mostly were being resolved in
  5. 5. Banjar. However, our project approaches are still considering those two administrations. The common education level among the productive age is senior high school. Only fewer people have higher education, the rest are the elders and children with basic education. There are public medical centers and few doctors available in the area. Most medical cases were being related to low income and poor living quality such as; poor children nutrition, malaria, and diarrhea. The rate of these cases would increase when dry season occurred. These identified conditions were being our consideration when we conduct the socialization of the project. By using Banjar leader (called Bendesa), Hindu priest, and leader of Desa (called Lurah), we started to campaign and socialize the project. This was most the effective way, since people were looking to their leaders. The project was introduced as government funded program and the people in both Banjar’s would inherit the installed systems. Some people in the community were happy; some were doubtful and worries that the units would become their burden in the future. With their urgent needs of drinking water and sufficient education level, the project succeeded to introduce. People awareness was developed and with their available knowledge, they organized themselves to participate in process of the project. These were be advantageous for project completion, yet were giving hopes that the installed systems had chances to sustain in the future. Technical, Economic, and Market Consideration Technical The systems were designed compact, easy to operate, and minimum maintenance. Low pressure - reversed osmosis technology were being used which had less energy consumption. Since it used lower osmotic pressure, the yield between produced water and feed water was also low. But, like previously mentioned, it was an advantage since the mixture of “unprocessed” water and brine byproduct has lower TDS which fulfill government requirement of disposed water quality. Both systems were consisting same components; 1. Well pump; Lorentz PS150 which is a highly efficient submersible pump system. 2. Reversed osmosis feed pump; Pacific Scientific 3. Filters ; strainers, 20 and 5 filters, charcoal filter, PH neutralizer, and UV sterilizer
  6. 6. 4. Automatic water flush pump 5. Reversed osmosis machine; 1800 liter/day production capacity, Sea Recovery’s Ultra Whisper™ Desalinator with its unique EfficientSea™ Energy Transfer technology; brings efficient, compact, extraordinarily quiet water making to small and midsize power or sail boats. The unit’s Energy Transfer Device eliminates the need for a high-pressure pump, reducing the electricity consumption of the R.O. system by as much as 75%.The R.O. process is achieved by recovering energy from the pressurized brine discharge and transferring that energy to relatively low- pressurized feed. 6. Solar panel of 4160 watt peak equipped with Lorentz ETATrack Active 1500 Solar Tracker, VRLA batteries 2V – 800, and Plasmatronic PL 60 charge controller. Most equipment was imported, but the spare parts are available in Indonesia. The closest vendor office is in Bali Island and recently PT. Energy Management Indonesia has awarded agency right from solar pump manufacturer. Installation sites were easy to be accessed since nearby village main road which almost 10 minutes from the ferry harbor.
  7. 7. Economic, Market, and Financial In Banjar Angkal and Banjar Semaya, most people live as traditional seaweed farmer and fisherman. Since the limited electricity and insufficient facilities for product processing, the seaweed and fish are brought to Bali Island to be processed for export purposes. To the contrary, groceries are being brought from Bali Island by using ferry or boat. And as guessed, all the prices are boosting up almost twice. Mineral water in gallon price is only Rp. 9,000 – Rp. 10,000 in Bali Island, and it’s boosting up to Rp. 18,000 – Rp. 20,000 in Nusa Penida. The communities were agreed among themselves to sell the produced water in gallons. The production rate is 90 water gallons per day. They organized local cooperatives to manage the business. They were selling the produced water at price Rp. 4500 per water gallon with brands Suryaning and Segaria. Half of the revenue was used as operating expenses and savings for maintenance cost. The other half was deposited to cooperative treasury for dividend or financing Banjar activities. Suryaning and Segaria have penetrated gallons water business in Nusa Penida. Product distribution chains were through traditional market, small shops, and delivery order. Other side products were growing. Instead of only sell gallon water; some small shops were selling lemonade, syrup, boiled noodle, and other food and beverages. Impact on economic growth in both Banjars has not been quantitatively measured yet. But some evidence in the field shows that people has got economic benefit from this business. An interview conducted recently to a small shop owner, Mrs. Ketut Lastriyani from Banjar Semaya; she said that her business was growing because of selling the produced water and other side products. She even could build a new shop across the old one. Pictures of Mrs. Lastriyani’s old and new small shop as below;
  8. 8. The fund of the project came from government spending. Each systems investment was Rp. (deleted) 750,000,000. However, financial analysis was conducted with still considering government spending as an investment. Analysis for each water treatment system is summarized below; Investment (deleted) Rp. 750,000,000 Project Lifetime 15 years Payback Period 10 years NPV (deleted) Rp. 392,000,000 IRR 5% However, if the price per gallon is set at Rp. 7,000, which still competitive compared to other commercial gallon water, the return will be much better. Calculated NPV and IRR are almost doubled and estimated payback period is shortened. Operating and Maintenance Scheme The systems were being operated for 6 hours of daily operation. While the available sunshine is 10 hours, the reliability of the system was secured by battery. Both facilities open from 9 a.m. to 16 p.m. Daily production is 90 water gallons. The buyers can come directly to the water treatment facility, or can order for deliveries, or can buy from traditional market or small shops.
  9. 9. As mentioned previously, the systems were being managed by local cooperatives at each Banjar. Simple organization structures were developed as below; Commisioner (Bendesa or Lurah) Manager Secretary Treasurer Operator Operator The operators are responsible for operating and doing maintenance of the systems. They’ve already equipped with O&M manual book written in Bahasa Indonesia. Maintenance was being scheduled from daily maintenance (housekeeping, cleaning the unused gallons), weekly maintenance (wiping out the solar panel, cleaning all the filters, tubes, and hose), and other periodic maintenance (membrane cleaning, etc). If there is system breakdown, the operators can call the closest vendor office in Denpasar, Bali. Replicability The project is replicable for government spending project or private project. The technology is available in the market from small scale capacity up to industrial capacity. The technology is going to be cheaper, efficient, and more modular. And yet, the financial analysis shows this type of can be a business model which has good financial valuation in certain circumstances and assumptions. Those technical and financial views must be accompanied by good socio – culture approach to make the project more sustainable.
  10. 10. Attachments Figure 1 Facility Layout
  11. 11. Figure 2 Facility Layout
  12. 12. Construction and Installation Phase
  13. 13. Construction and Installation Phase Post Project – Operators Training
  14. 14. Post Project - Ceremony
  15. 15. Recent Picture – Banjar Angkal Facility Recent Picture – Banjar Semaya Facility