The integration of film induced tourism and destination branding in Yorkshire, U.K. .


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20008 - International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(5): 423-437

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The integration of film induced tourism and destination branding in Yorkshire, U.K. .

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM RESEARCH Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI: 10.1002/jtr.676 The Integration of Film-induced Tourism and Destination Branding in Yorkshire, UK Noelle O’Connor1,*, Sheila Flanagan2 and David Gilbert3 1 Limerick Institute of Technology, School of Business and Humanities, Moylish Park Limerick, Ireland 2 Dublin Institute of Technology, School of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Dublin, Ireland 3 University of Surrey, School of Management, Surrey, UK ABSTRACT result, the audiences’ relationship with the story characteristics and setting is developed This paper identifies the integration of film over time. This keeps the destination where the induced tourism and destination branding series is filmed in the audiences’ minds, sup- on destinations featured in television series’ porting the motivation to visit. Television series such as Yorkshire, which is the film location usually have more long-term impacts than film, for many popular English television unless the film is extremely popular such as series’. The review of the existing literature Crocodile Dundee (1986). According to Beeton, identified a gap in previous investigations this film shot in Australia provided immedi- and in response, a tourist survey and ate destination recognition in the USA (Beeton, strategic conversations with the key 2005, p. 11). The main objective of this paper is stakeholders were an initial attempt to fill to investigate the level of integration of film- induced tourism1 and destination branding in this gap. The issues which arose from these and the literature review highlighted some a tourism destination such as Yorkshire, UK. implications for the future development This paper draws on a mixed method empiri- of these destinations, namely the use of cal work utilising tourist surveys and strategic destination branding in the promotion of a conversations with tourists and stakeholders film location. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley within a case study approach, focusing on one & Sons, Ltd. tourism location, specifically Yorkshire. Received 5 April 2007; Revised 21 February 2008; Accepted BACKGROUND LITERATURE 11 March 2008 In the midst of some notable exceptions (Tooke Keywords: film-induced tourism; branding; and Baker, 1996; Riley et al., 1998; Busby and Yorkshire; stakeholder. Klug, 2001; Beeton, 2005; Connell, 2005a, 2005b; Fernandez-Young and Young, 2006, INTRODUCTION pp. 126–127) most of the tourism-orientated literature on film-induced tourism consists of T he current British series Last of the Summer unsubstantiated statements on the economic Wine has been screened on British tele- importance of film-induced tourism. Several vision since 1973 (Mordue, 2001). As a films are based on books (Haworth and the Brontë sisters), as are a high percentage of television series. Many anecdotal studies are *Correspondence to: N. O’Connor, Limerick Institute of Technology, School of Business and Humanities, Moylish cited in Tooke and Baker’s (1996) work, which Park, Limerick, Ireland. considers four case studies from British tele- E-mail: vision: To the Manor Born (1979–1991); By the 1 Film-induced tourism is the collective term used for the study of tourist visits to a destination or attraction as a Sword Divided (1983–1985); Middlemarch (1984); result of the destination being featured on the cinema and Heartbeat (1994–present). They also refer screen, DVD, television or on video (Hudson and Ritchie, to Cadfael (1994–1998), a historical detective 2006a; 256). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  2. 2. 424 N. O’Connor, S. Flanagan and D. Gilbert television series filmed in Hungary that (4) film-induced destination marketing activi- still attracts large numbers of tourists to ties (Cohen, 1986; Woodward, 2000; Beeton, Shrewsbury, where the originating novels 2002; Grihault, 2003; Frost, 2004; Connell, were set (Fernandez-Young and Young, 2006, 2005a; Hudson and Ritchie, 2006a, 2006b; pp. 126–127). O’Connor et al., 2006. Quite a new occurrence in destination-related branding is the growth of tourism in destina- Film-induced tourism in Britain tions where film or television series have been Britain has been the filming location for over 100 recorded. Attention has been given to how desti- international films and television series, com- nations capitalise on their film images in destina- prising some very successful productions like tion marketing campaigns by researchers such as The Da Vinci Code (2006), Four Weddings and a Riley (1994) and Stewart (1997). Substantiations Funeral (1994), Braveheart (1995), The Full Monty from around the world confirm the power of film (1997), Notting Hill (1999) and Pride and Preju- and television in inspiring tourism demand in dice (2003), which have attracted international showcase destinations; hence, many destinations tourists to the screened locations. Australia also have to deal with a dramatic invasion of tourists as expanded their recognition considerably world- a result of film-induced tourism (Connell, 2005a; wide as a tourist destination after quite a few p. 763). successful films like Mad Max (1980), The Man Many years ago, it was viewed that there from Snowy River (1982), Crocodile Dundee (1986) was a scarcity of academic research on the phe- and Crocodile Dundee II (1988). The natural envi- nomenon of film-induced tourism. A variety of ronment represented in the films is a factor that studies have since examined this phenomenon provoked many Americans, who have a special and the benefits of both before and after the attachment to the wilderness, to travel to the cinematic release of a film for a host destina- destinations (Riley and Van Doren, 1992). More tion (Carl et al., 2007; p.49). Busby and O’Neill recently, films and television series sets in dif- (2006; p.35) noted that travel inspired by visual ferent regions of South Korea have motivated media has existed since the Grand Tour (17– a number of new international tourist flows, 19th centuries) (Butler, 1990). Hudson and especially Japanese female tourists to South Ritchie (2006b; p. 388) suggest that even though Korea (Iwashita, 2006, pp. 183–184). no research studies have determined the place- ment of destinations in films, in general there Film-induced tourism and destination is a growing body of research related to film- branding: the key issues induced tourism (Beeton, 2005). This can be categorised into four broad categories: The results from an assortment of studies such as Gartner (1993) and Busby and Klug (2001) (1) film-induced tourism as a destination moti- seem to be incomplete descriptive understand- vator (Urry, 1990; Riley and van Doren, ings of the functions of film-induced tourism 1992; Tooke and Baker, 1996; Riley et al., and do not offer a theoretical insight to why this 1998; Sharp, 2000; Busby and Klug, 2001; phenomenon is happening. Some of the results Bolan and Davidson, 2005); explain the increased tourism induced by films (2) film-induced tourists (Macionis, 2004; and suggest that a film could be a helpful tool Singh and Best, 2004); to change destination images, therefore affect (3) the impact of film-induced tourism on the audiences’ interest in visiting the destina- both tourists and residents (Cousins and tion. It is clear from these studies, that further Andereck, 1993; Schofield, 1996; Stewart, research is required to better understand the 1997; Sargent, 1998; Beeton, 2001a, 2001b, relationships between films and tourism (Kim 2004, 2005; Mordue, 2001; O’Connor and and Richardson, 2003; p.232) and these should Flanagan, 2001; Gundle, 2002; Bordelon consider the following: and Dimanche, 2003; Busby et al., 2003; Croy and Walker, 2003; Kim and Richard- (1) The importance of a strong image son, 2003; Torchin, 2003 O’Connor et al., There is a strong consensus that image is 2005; Connell, 2005b; Iwashita, 2006; and a key part of a marketing strategy for a Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  3. 3. Film-induced Tourism 425 destination and various researchers (Chon, popular culture and closes the gap between 1991; Heath and Wall, 1991) have examined spontaneous belief and empirical evidence as the use of image in brand formation for des- films familiarise potential tourists with desti- tinations. It is disputed that regardless of a nations and the attractions featured in them large quantity of products and services under (Morgan and Pritchard, 1999, pp. 102–119). the one brand umbrella, the formation of a Aaker (1996) highlighted the significance of brand identity can be reached to give the des- understanding the tourism destination brand, tination a common marketing goal (Palmer, developing one that very much reflects the 2004, p. 129). Despite the fact that many des- charm of the destination and also the ways in tinations have acknowledged the potential of which national brands are perceived in differ- film-induced tourism and how it can create a ent destination should be regularly reviewed powerful destination image, few destinations (Morgan and Pritchard, 1998). The creation of have retained control over how and to whom a good image whether personal, visual, vocal, the destination is presented through films and film or television related is the key to success, television series. It is clear that film stakehold- but the brand must reflect the destination such ers are interested in creating the film they want as Tourism Ireland’s marketing of Ireland’s and not necessarily the type of image that the built and natural environment. tourism stakeholders may desire. For instance, a Destination Management Organisation2 (DMO) (3) Best practice example may want to encourage high-spending tour- The scope for leverage that The Lord of the Rings ists, look to establish images of a good quality (2001–2003) offered to New Zealand is in many tourist destination and also the community ways unprecedented. The New Zealand govern- may begin to see their town as a welcoming ment launched funding packages to encourage area, such images can be incorporated into a and measure positive spin-offs from the trilogy destination marketing strategy (Beeton, 2005, and they (Clark, 2001) acknowledged tourism p. 154). Nevertheless, a film studio that wants promotion as a vital opportunity created by to use the destination to create a film about a the films, increasing the profile and percep- small-minded, racist community, presents an tion of New Zealand as a tourism destination. image that is unable to coexist with the DMO’s Films are reoccurring events, with DVD/video desired image (Beeton, 2005, p. 154), whereas launches, television airing and other spin-offs Morgan and Prichard (1998; p. 8) claim that providing opportunities for frequent viewing, the challenge for destination marketers is to that strengthen the association between a find the best way to use images, stories and film and its location (Tooke and Baker, 1996). emotions to capture the tourists attention and The task of creating and exploiting The Lord create the destination’s brand. of the Rings connection has been driven by Tourism New Zealand3 (TNZ) and comple- (2) Understanding destination branding mented by the media and individual tourism As the viewing of films and television contin- stakeholders (Jones and Smith, 2005, pp. 923– ues to expand, so too will their influence on 945). destination images. Even if those developed Film can also be used to direct attention through the media may be untrue, they have towards geographical areas or draw attention the ability to influence both tourism market- to less known destinations. France, for instance, ers and tourists. Improved theoretical under- uses the film Chocolat (2000) to draw attention standing of the impacts of films on destination to Burgundy, and Charlotte Grey (2001) to the perceptions will enhance knowledge about Aveyron and Lot Valley. It can make desti- the image formation process as it relates to nations popular, which may struggle to find any other viable reason to develop a tourist 2 A DMO is an organisation at any level which is respon- sible for the marketing of an identifiable destination. This 3 therefore excludes separate government departments that TNZ is the marketing agency responsible for marketing responsible for planning and policy (Pike, 2004, p. 14). New Zealand internationally (TNZ, 2008). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  4. 4. 426 N. O’Connor, S. Flanagan and D. Gilbert industry. When the film has been chosen, the film-induced tourism, there is no one suitable marketing campaign should to be centred research method. Researchers in the social sci- on the film cycle (Mintel, 2003; 8). It is vital ences operate a variety of research methods that destinations use successful film-induced that can be applied to tourism depending on branding examples to initiate their own strate- the type of research questions and the control gies. This can be supported by using the best that the researcher has over events and behav- practice model that New Zealand developed iour. To facilitate developing a comprehensive in its partnership with The Lord of the Rings understanding of the phenomenon, various (Piggott et al., 2004). methods were used in conjunction with each other. Primary data were obtained at international, METHODOLOGY national and regional levels. This allowed the researchers to establish industry observations related to the research topic, in an attempt Secondary data to substantiate the findings of the secondary Initially, secondary data were collected for this data, support or dispute the research objec- study in order to provide in-depth understand- tives, and finally suggest appropriate recom- ing. It can be subdivided into two components: mendations and conclusions in response to the academic and industry-specific information. research objectives undertaken. The research This dual focus is necessary to give the study was divided into two phases. The first phase academic integrity, in addition to providing involved a survey of the tourist population relevance to the tourist industry. The academic and the second, strategic conversations with material focuses on destination branding, des- the key stakeholders from the local authori- tination imagery and film-induced tourism, ties, tourism planners to the Regional Screen whereas the industry material concentrates on Agency (RSA)5 involved in the development the tourism trends worldwide and the future of the Yorkshire brand. A combination of these development plans proposed for Yorkshire. methods maximises the accuracy of the results Preliminary secondary research carried out by achieved, with qualitative research providing the researchers establishes that the Yorkshire a deeper understanding of the issues explored regional tourism organisation, the Yorkshire by quantitative research. Tourist Board4 (YTB), have tried to capitalise This research study applies both the positiv- on film-based tourism by producing a number ist and the interpretive social science paradigms of guides and trails such as the Yorkshire that in turn impact its research design. The On Screen Film Trail (YTB, 2001, p. 2). Fur- rationale for this is that the survey undertaken thermore, mention is made in the guidebooks will allow the researcher to gain a statistical relating to Yorkshire’s association with the understanding of the tourists’ interpretation many television series filmed in the county. of the film-induced tourism phenomenon However, it is unclear how effective such in Yorkshire (positivist paradigm). The branding has been in terms of its impact on strategic conversations with the stakeholders tourist numbers. (insiders) involved in the development of Yorkshire as a tourist destination will iden- tify their views in relation to this phenom- enon (interpretive social sciences paradigm). Primary data Beeton (2000, p. 129) argues that for a broad- ranging emotionally complex field such as 5 The UK Film Council invests STG£7.5 million a year into regional film activities through the Regional Investment 4 The YTB is the official tourism agency responsible for Fund for England, which supports the nine Regional representing and helping to generate sustainable tourism Screen Agencies in England, providing a variety of for the Yorkshire tourism economy while representing resources aimed at developing public access to and the whole of the Yorkshire and northern Lincolnshire’s education about, film and the moving image (UK Film tourism industry (YTB, 2008). Council, 2008). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  5. 5. Film-induced Tourism 427 Table 1. Tourist survey sample Tourism Information Centre No. of surveys (300) Overall % (100) Aysgarth Falls 40 13 Holmfirth 20 7 Whitby 160 53 York — De Grey Rooms 80 27 As these paradigms use different approaches in the Yorkshire Dales, Holmfirth in the south- to research methodology (quantitative versus west near Huddersfield, Whitby is on the east qualitative), the data obtained will be richer coast and York is in the centre of Yorkshire. in detail. It was undertaken between 9 and 5 p.m. A descriptive survey was chosen to investi- during both the weekdays and the weekend. gate tourists’ attitudes towards film-induced The overall aim of the research was to ascer- tourism in Yorkshire. In planning the survey, tain from the general tourist population, the the research questions and target tourist popu- extent to which television series and the image lation were both considered. For the most part, they portrayed of the county, had influenced the items used in the survey were derived from their pre-visit perception of Yorkshire. Thus, a previous studies (Hu and Ritchie, 1993; Akama series of open-ended questions and structured and Kieti, 2003). The two-part questionnaire attribute statements on destination branding, comprised 33 questions and classified the destination imagery and film-induced tourism respondents by age, first time in Yorkshire, were included in the tourist survey for this gender, length of stay, origin, occupation, research study. The rating scale was a 5-point party size, travelling party, whether they trav- Likert scale based on the level of agreement elled independently or as part of a package. with each statement. As the survey was of the general tourist Data were collected via strategic conversa- population, it was carried out at a number of tions with the key stakeholders behind the Tourism Information Centres6 (TICs) across Yorkshire brand in July 2006. All of the respon- Yorkshire, with the largest number of tourists dents had extensive and specialist knowledge in the areas most directly affected by filming of the specific matters pertaining to the York- of the three case studies under review. The shire brand as they are the most effective researchers conducted a stratified sample for method of obtaining more detailed in-depth the tourist surveys (300) which was conducted information. The 28 stakeholders were chosen in Aysgarth Falls (representing All Creatures based on their current positions to facilitate Great and Small, 1978–1990), Holmfirth (repre- the representation of the views of the film and senting Last of the Summer Wine), Whitby (rep- tourism industry in Yorkshire. Although this resenting Heartbeat) and York (regional capital) method is judgemental and does not allow the (see Table 1). researcher to detect who is included or excluded Once the pilot study was completed and from the study, the researcher picked the most suggested alternations made, the survey was well-informed tourism and film stakeholders implemented over a seven-day period in July that represented an industry-based perspec- 2003. Only first-time tourists were considered, tive. As issues materialised from the original as previous visitation can influence percep- research questions in addition to the design tions of destinations (Fakeye and Crompton, of the survey data, particular questions arose 1991). Aysgarth is located to the North West that needed to be answered. These issues had to be customised for the different interview- ees as each stakeholder, depending on their knowledge and experience of the several areas under review, could tackle specific issues more 6 TICs provide the public with information on tourist fittingly. facilities and services in Yorkshire. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  6. 6. 428 N. O’Connor, S. Flanagan and D. Gilbert The development of a strong brand can be a RESULTS critical success factor for a destination The increased dependence on tourism as an VisitBritain’s15 current domestic brand is for alternative source of income in Yorkshire three years. Its logo is Real, Fun, Indulgent. The Area Tourism Partnerships16 (ATP) will assist The marketing of tourism destinations is grad- this, as brand and image are a key element, ually becoming more competitive. Destina- but the needs of the locals from a social and tions need to take full advantage of their visual economic perspective also need to be con- identity, for example by aligning with relevant film and television assets.7 VisitBritain (Visit- sidered. The target is to raise their brand posi- tion and to increase their competitiveness in Britain, 2008) have increased their funding the domestic market. The YTB feel the image from the Department of Culture, Media and Sport8 (DCMS) by gaining annual non-govern- portrayed and perceived by potential tourists ment funding of around c3 million annually.9,10 is very important and as a result should be given special attention in destination manage- VisitBritain has a small budget compared with ment planning.12 This can be achieved through their competitors, but they try to counteract careful research and segmenting the market, this by working in conjunction with the film studios, which helps minimise their costs.11 The matching and tailoring what is on offer to what the target markets desire.17 YTB also has a limited budget of c4.6 million VisitBritain and Scarborough District in comparison with some of their competitors Council18 argue that branding cannot be like Scotland.12 ignored because once it is established, the Both Holmfirth and York TICs claim that brand needs to evolve with the product, and tourism is vital given the decline of Yorkshire’s Yorkshire is trying to do this through their local industries because of tourism’s ability to new ATP. To facilitate the development of a generate repeat business. It also contributes recognised brand, a collective understanding c6.15 billion annually to the local economy. and awareness of the brand by its target audi- In Scarborough, tourism employees make up ence is required. The huge increase in both 18% of the workforce, whereas this is only television channels and the internet means that 8% nationally. Tourism has also aided regen- it is becoming even more difficult to develop eration as it helps diversify agriculture. In the brands based on film/television experiences Peak District, tourist spending in pubs and res- because of audience diversity, fragmentation taurants is important, as 33.3% of all jobs are based in the tourism industry.13 In 2005, York and reduction. Subsequently, film-induced brands are likely to become niche products, city alone attracted four million tourists, pro- rather than universally recognised products. duced revenue worth c172 million and created 9561 jobs.14 The brand needs to reflect the destination otherwise it will weaken and return visitation will invariably decline.19 Tourism professionals 7 Clewley, Michael; Film and Media Consultant, VisitBritain (1 September 2006). 8 The DCMS is responsible for government policy on the arts, sport, the National Lottery, tourism, libraries, 15 museums, galleries, broadcasting, film, the music indus- VisitBritain, the national tourism agency, promotes try, press freedom and regulation, licensing, gambling Britain internationally in 36 markets and England in and the historic environment (YTB, 2006). Britain, France, Germany, Ireland and the Netherlands 9 Hancer, Claire; England Sales and Marketing Manager, (VisitBritain, 2008). 16 VisitBritain (27 July 2006). The ATP is a regional tourism partnership, which is in 10 Lal, Vineet; England Brand Manager, VisitBritain (2 place in each of Yorkshire’s tourism regions and com- August 2006). prises representatives from the public and private sectors, 11 Welch, Seren; Head of International Brands, VisitBritain as well from Yorkshire Forward, Yorkshire Culture and (27 July 2006). the YTB. 12 17 Smyth, Amanda; Marketing Campaigns Manager, Nolan, Jo; CEO, Screen South (5 October 2006). 18 Yorkshire Tourist Board (31 July 2006). Kibblewhite, Mark; Project Development Officer, 13 Guffogg, Andy; Head of Sustainable Tourism, Peak Tourism and Leisure Services, Scarborough District District National Park (17 July 2006). Council (8 August 2006). 14 19 Tempest, Ian; Tourism Manager and Secretariat to the Inze, Kerry; Head of Locations and Inward Investment, Executive, York City Council (21 July 2006). Screen East (31 July 2006). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  7. 7. Film-induced Tourism 429 want images created by other sectors, such as marketing of the film went, so did the Peak District’s tourism product.13 the film industry, to reflect and support the brand, not weaken it. So as to maximise effec- The National Trust ascertains that if the tiveness, the strong image of the destination image portrayed in advertising the experience should be aligned to any destination brand- is of somewhere totally different to the brand ing that the DMO is implementing, then they image, this will lead to bad publicity through can maximise on the free advertising. Never- word of mouth. It turns out that Yorkshire as a whole is portraying a strong image.20 This is theless, this may not always be the case as it is never really known how powerful the film very much the case in the Scarborough district or television series will be until it is released as two of Yorkshire’s most successful television or whether the images portrayed will truly series, The Royal (2003–present) and Heartbeat, reflect the destination. Production companies are set there. A strong image does not matter to do not consider destination marketing when the domestic market as much, as they tend to take shorter breaks.9 It is important to strike a they make a film or television series. They are looking for locations that reflect a script and balance between the aspirations of destinations the director’s perception of how the story line in an attempt to develop strong brands and should be portrayed. For that reason, there is a realistic tourism product. Viewers can also the possibility that the images can be power- become interested in a destination through the ful, but the destination may not be portrayed story and the characters but the aim of this is to sell the overall Yorkshire experience.9 in accordance with the brand. Additionally, locations often double for other places.19 The power of the brand is crucial. National Scarborough District Council states that the Park amenities, towns and villages are all Goathland brand is very specific.18 The York- unique as are their festivals and markets.13 shire Dales brand does indeed reflect their The development of a strong image can fill the tourist product20 as it was very successful gaps through assessing the films and then add when the television series All Creatures Great to that slowly as has happened in the recent and Small was first broadcast21 (see Tooke British-based films, Elizabeth II and Henry VII. and Baker, 1996; Mordue, 1999, 2001; Beeton, York’s image is important, but it could be 2001a, 2005; Mintel, 2003; O’Connor and argued that the reality has to at least match and Flanagan, 2001; O’Connor et al., 2005, 2006). preferably exceed people’s expectations once they get there.14 The Peak District National It is the exposure from television that is the Park Authority (NPA)23 recently completed a benefit of hosting a show rather than the loca- tion fee. Movie maps help as organisations like brand analysis on the strength of its brand. the National Trust could not afford to produce They found that their image was positive but them. For the internationally acclaimed film they need to ensure that what is on offer meets Pride and Prejudice (2003), the National Trust’s22 the brand promise.13 tourism product was featured on the DVD, Destinations need to create a unique image film website, movie map and contractually and brand to differentiate themselves from got the film production company, ‘Working their competitors. This will help them compete Title Productions’ to provide a costume with their European competitors, which have exhibition. That explains why, wherever the increased since the emergence of the budget airlines and the enlargement of the European Union.8 France and Italy are Britain’s main competitors, whereas VisitBritain forecasts that China will be a much stronger competitor 20 Barker, Julie; Sustainable Tourism Manager, Yorkshire after the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.11 Dales National Park (18 July 2006). 21 Shields, David, Tourism Manager, Hambleton District As Yorkshire’s tourist industry is very much Council (Herriot Country) (18 July 2006). 22 The National Trust is responsible for conserving and enhancing the natural beauty, wildlife, culture and heri- tage in Britain. The National Trust also promotes opportu- 23 The NPA have twin purposes of preserving and enhanc- nities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special ing Britain’s natural beauty and promoting their enjoy- qualities of the National Parks by the public (The National ment to the public (National Park, 2008). Trust, 2007). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  8. 8. 430 N. O’Connor, S. Flanagan and D. Gilbert influenced by the film-induced tourism phe- Britain’s 24 million) appears to be a little con- nomenon, this will now be investigated in tradictory. The ensuing economic benefit from more detail. the high level of tax breaks available to film makers in New Zealand, pooled with these promotional overheads, has been queried by Film-induced tourism has very much the Organisation for Economic Co-operation influenced the strength of the Yorkshire and Development29 (OECD, 2003). This is not brand to say that such investment is not practical, but Many academic researchers (Tooke and Baker, the public investment in tourism promotion 1996; Mordue, 1999, 2001; O’Connor and and private enterprises needs to be observed Flanagan, 2001; Mintel, 2003; Beeton, 2001a, (Beeton, 2005, pp. 230–231). Other academics 2005; O’Connor et al., 2005, 2006) have studied such as Morgan et al., (2002), Morgan et al. Yorkshire as a film-induced tourism destina- (2003) and Piggott et al. (2004) also examined tion. The media is an important way to gain the impact of The Lord of the Rings trilogy on new audience, such as ethnic minorities, and New Zealand with some suggestions on how television series like Coast (2005–present) are the successful integration of a film into a desti- also influential.24 Screen Yorkshire25 indicates nation brand can take place. It can be beneficial that such branding can be highly successful. It to incorporate film and television into tourism was also suggested by Screen East19,26 that films destination marketing and planning as seen are free marketing opportunities. They should with the success of the collaboration between be considered within a destination marketing The Lord of the Rings and TNZ. The YTB could strategy with the purpose of strengthening the profit from doing this but so far have not been brand. Screen South1727 feel that it is probably that proactive considering the number of film not essential but good partnership marketing and television series (see Table 2) that have put can assist regional development. On the other the county on the map. hand, if a destination has as much tourism Film-induced tourism is not a strategic pri- ority for the YTB.30 It does seem to have been as its infrastructure can cope with as seen in Goathland, then perhaps it would be unwise a success in recent times, through Pride and to advertise extensively that successful films Prejudice (2003), where the respective agencies have been shot in key locations.28 such as the Peak District National Park have worked with their screen agency, EM-Media.31 As seen earlier, New Zealand has been very productive in terms of supporting film- They responded to the demand and produced materials to encourage tourism.13 Ideally, the induced tourism particularly in relation to The Lord of the Rings trilogy. The amount of public multiplier effect should be considered at the money being put into the tourism promotion time of the shooting of the film or television linked with one type of imaging tool to such series. Screen East implies that the moving a sparsely populated country (four million) images tend to strengthen the brand they are with two million international tourist arrivals actually trying to portray. It can become even (compared with Australian’s five million and more successful, if the tourist boards and the local tourism officers work collaboratively with their screen agency.19 York and Aysgarth TICs argue that the Yorkshire brand should be based on film/ 24 Edgington, Harvey; Broadcast and Media Liaison Officer, The National Trust (9 August 2006). 25 Screen Yorkshire is the regional screen agency for filming, broadcasting and digital media industries in the Yorkshire, and Humber region and is part of the regional 29 The OECD supports sustainable economic growth, boosts screen agency network which covers the whole of Britain employment, raises living standards, maintains financial (Screen Yorkshire, 2008). 26 stability, assists other countries’ economic development Screen East is the regional screen agency for the East and contributes to growth in world trade (OECD, 2008). of England. 30 27 Wragge, Lesley; Press Officer, Yorkshire Tourist Board Screen South is the regional screen agency for the South (20 July 2006). East of England. 31 28 EM-Media is the regional screen agency for England’s Breakell, Bill; Transport and Tourism Officer, North East Midlands. Yorkshire Moors National Park (19 July 2006). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  9. 9. Film-induced Tourism 431 Table 2. Yorkshire-based film and television series (1960s–2001) Year Television series Film 1960s This Sporting Life 1967 The Railway Children 1970 Jane Eyre 1970 The Railway Children 1970 and 1992 Wuthering Heights 1972 The Darling Buds of May 1972–present Emmerdale (Farm) 1973–present Last of the Summer Wine 1978–1990 All Creatures Great and Small 1980s A Woman of Substance, Hold the Dream, Act of Will 1981 Brideshead Revisited Wetherby 1985 1986 Rita, Sue and Bob Too 1989 A Bit of a Do 1991 Robin Hood — Prince of Thieves 1993 The Secret Garden Heartbeat 1994–present 1995 Band of Gold 1996 Brassed off 1996 When Saturday Comes 1996–2006 Where the Heart Is 1997 The Full Monty Elizabeth 1998 1998 Little Voice 1998 Playing the Field 2001 Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone 2001 The Inspector Linley Mysteries Adapted from Yorkshire Tourism Board, 2001/2002. television and be part of a wider brand as both wider brand. It would be a mistake to give the of these bring in tourists whereas VisitBritain media brand a narrow focus as it should be part of a wider brand.32 Tourists visit a destina- ascertains that a wider brand tends to deliver more than what is shown on screen.11 The main tion for different reasons and not all of them aim is the free public relations but it is a very watch the films or television series that a desti- narrow window from production to release. nation-marketing agency may use. Also, a film The integration of film-induced branding into or television series may only reflect one or two the wider brand can be very productive but aspects of an overall brand. the success of a production needs to be realised There have been many very successful tele- first, otherwise there would be too much risk. vision series set in Yorkshire over the last 50 Nevertheless, that does not mean to say that years so the British themselves have an image preparations should not be made in anticipa- of Yorkshire (see Table 2). Like any destination tion of the demand. A brand needs to be able that has only been experienced through a film to continually reinvent itself. Screen South and and/or television series, it only tells part of the The Peak District National Park advocate that story. There are many other sides to Yorkshire as long as a film or television series has a large that tourists who have never visited would not popular viewing audience that is likely to visit, the brand can be based around these.13,17 This can happen if the brand is powerful enough, 32 Steele, David; Head of Research and Statistics Unit, UK but it is more productive for it to be part of a Film Council (27 July 2006). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  10. 10. 432 N. O’Connor, S. Flanagan and D. Gilbert be aware of.28 Kirklees Metropolitan Council consortium, The Northern Way, is trying to encourage such growth as it seems to be a very supports the idea that Yorkshire’s unique media-led world today.34 selling point is its tourism product: beaches, The use of media brands can be extremely food, mountains, people, sea and shops. York- cost-effective as the film company is pro- shire is a very big county and is very strong in attracting tourists.28 The YTB suggests that viding free marketing. It should not be only branding but it is one of the most effective Yorkshire is presently portraying a positive ways to market the county9 as only particular image through a strong portrayal of adven- market segments are interested in that type tures, community, experiences, family values and roaming countryside.12 of product. Port Merrion (Wales) plays down their links to the television series, The Pris- Yorkshire’s television series have reinforced oner (1967–1968), as they feel their strengths the traditional core values associated with a are greater than having been in a cult show.24 rural county.33 Yorkshire is still portrayed as In the case of Yorkshire, the YTB and RTA very traditional and can give a wrong impres- have recognised the strength of certain brands, sion as in Sheffield and The Full Monty (1997) instead of its art and culture.13 On the other for instance the Herriot and Heartbeat Country brands, which help raise the profile of the hand, through the Yorkshire-based televi- destination and encourage tourists. The pop- sion series, they have raised the awareness and shown a positive image of the county.34 ularity and longevity of these productions have contributed to the creation of successful Historically, Yorkshire has been represented media-related brands, both domestically and as mostly rural and is often portrayed in a internationally. similar way. The YTB are trying to change this The Santa Barbara Conference and Visitors so they can attract a younger audience and Bureau produced Sideways (2004) — The Map in they reinforce the concept of the county being beautiful.30 2004, a guide to the film locations of Sideways, even before the film was released. Shortly after Nonetheless, over the last couple of years, its premiere, tourists keen to see the diners, Yorkshire has been home to new gritty urban hotels and wineries used in the film, purchased television series like No Angels (2004–2006) 10 000 copies of the guide (Hudson and Ritchie, and Bodies (2004–2006), hence a new image on 2006a; p. 259). Beeton (2005, p. 62) also men- television of the county is starting to emerge, tioned that the creation of the highly successful which the YTB very much supports. It is bring- Australian Movie Map, which includes films ing in new tourists as Heartbeat continues to redefine the traditional image.28 The image of such as Babe (2002) and the world’s first feature film The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906). New the county is continually reinforced through Zealand also published movie maps identi- television series like All Creatures Great and fying the country as the home of Lord of the Small, Heartbeat and Last of the Summer Wine. It Rings, promoting road trips to the film loca- would be true to say that the face of some des- tions and incorporating a pictorial journey of tinations within the county have been altered the key film locations on its tourism websites. after the increase in tourism; the village used In Ireland, the Wicklow Film Commission has in Heartbeat has turned into a tourism product itself.30 Kirklees Metropolitan Council ascer- produced the Film Action in County Wicklow Guide, which illustrates the film trails that the tains that the way forward is to get away from county has to offer such as Braveheart Drive, the traditional image and it is worth noting Excalibur Drive and Michael Collins Drive; but that the film crews themselves contribute to because of the lack of promotion and finan- the local economy when they are filming in cial support, these have not been as success- the county. The North of England’s marketing ful as the American, Australian and British examples (O’Connor et al., 2005). The growth of the movie map is an integral element of 33 Barker, Alison; Tourism and Culture Manager, York- film-induced tourism, which can have a very shire Forward (20 July 2006). positive impact on the development of a tourist 34 Evans, Martin; Director, (21 July destination. 2006). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  11. 11. Film-induced Tourism 433 CONCLUSION marketing of their destination. This in turn may result in considerable economic, environ- mental and social problems (O’Connor et al., Film-induced tourism discipline 2006). Yorkshire has presented a refreshing insight into the film-induced tourism phenomenon. It has corroborated with some of the preced- Film reimaging rural areas ing research on this topic and is further evi- Busby and Klug (2001) discovered in their dence of the influential effect that films and research about the film Notting Hill (1999) that television series can have on a destination. It two-thirds of the respondents concurred with has shown that such tourism is a versatile and the fact that films and television series can vibrant concept and its success is reliant on promote tourism to a specified destinations many factors outside the destinations control. (Hanefors and Mossberg, 2002, p. 236). The key Without a doubt, research is required to study findings of this study also support Gartner’s these and other factors relating to film-induced (1996) the argument that image formation tourism. There is also a need for more research agents like news and popular culture can alter into the emotional and behavioural aspects destination images in a relatively short time of such tourism. Many variables may affect a period. The promoting of tourism destinations film and television series impact on viewers’ is turning out to be progressively more aggres- mindset towards a destination and as a result sive as destinations will need to find creative on tourism. Responses to these variables merit solutions and maximise their visual identity. further examination (Hudson and Ritchie, In the YTB’s strategy, one of their aims is to 2006a; p. 266). Lam and Ap (2006, p. 166) argued increase their domestic brand awareness even that studies on issues relating to film-induced though the awareness of the Yorkshire brand tourism, such as its nature, forms, characteris- is very strong. Conversely, it is about making tics, its effects on the residents of destinations something different or providing an experience and tourists’ behaviour, were not conducted that cannot be gained elsewhere. For Kirklees until the mid-1990s. Following a broad search Metropolitan Council, the brands that they are of the existing research publications on film- currently using are the Last of the Summer Wine induced tourism, it was observed that the and the Pennine Yorkshire brands, whereas at related academic literature is somewhat scarce, a county level it is about dispelling visions of which is in all probability because of its short Yorkshire and enabling consumers to Make history (Lam and Ap, 2006, p. 166). Yorkshire Yours special to them.35 The importance of tourism research The relationship between the tourism and film stakeholders Destination marketers need well-founded and dependable research from which to make Closer collaboration with the screen agen- branding decisions (Harrill, 2004). Harrill cies and actively sponsoring their activities (2004) also proclaims that this research should to encourage production and being as film form the hub of a new subfield of destination friendly as possible is crucial for continued branding, one that concentrates not only on success. Once it is secured, a closer collab- the demand side of the industry and how they orative partnership is essential in order to can attract tourists to the destination but also decide on a strategic approach to maximise on the supply side, in the steps that should be the opportunities that emerge. The destination undertaken to provide an alluring and pleasur- can then be ready to meet the demand follow- able tourism product (Harrill, 2004). However, ing the screening, as the production can be since O’Connor et al. (2006) have studied the woven into the destination brand itself. The impact of film-induced tourism on Yorkshire; tourist stakeholders should meet with the film it has become increasingly evident that some of the stakeholders like the YTB are over- 35 Rowe-Marshall, Helen; Senior Tourism Officer, Kirklees using the film and television imagery in the Metropolitan Council (20 July 2006). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
  12. 12. 434 N. O’Connor, S. Flanagan and D. Gilbert stakeholders and work out how both sides can and the stakeholder (Hede and O’Mahony, get the maximum exposure for their campaigns 2004, p. 14). as only working closer together can provide The findings of the tourist survey, strategic a fully effective, long-term partnership.7 Film conversations and the issues that arose from companies should be more forthcoming with the literature review highlight a number of publicity photos whereas the filming destina- implications for the future development of tion should have a publicity clause in their such destinations. These implications include contract with the studios.24 the many positive and negative impacts of VisitBritain works closely with its strategic filming the various television series in York- partners in relation to film-induced tourism shire and the use of destination branding in and plans to continue to do so to facilitate the promotion of a film location as found with maximising the effectiveness and inspiring The Lord of the Rings and New Zealand. They people to visit what they have seen on the big were undertaken to illustrate the effect of film- screen.7 It is essential to keep abreast of what is induced tourism on a branding of a destina- being filmed, where and initially maintaining tion, namely Yorkshire. It has been shown that the relationship between the tourism and film film-induced tourism has the potential to offer stakeholders, namely the production compa- many great opportunities but also creates many nies, the local authorities, tourism officers and drawbacks. The perception of Yorkshire as the screen agencies. It seems that once a release film-induced tourism is not widely welcomed date is determined this is the point where plan- by the stakeholders and the implications are ning should begin so that promotional mate- that maintaining a clear balance between rials are ready to coincide with destination Yorkshire’s current tourism product and images appearing on the big screen. maximising opportunities in new markets is the most appropriate way forward. (Conell, 2005a, p. 774). Research limitations and further research REFERENCES Film-induced tourism is partially based on tourist demands to escape reality to a better Aaker DA. 1996. Building Strong Brands. Free Press: world represented in films. By understanding Sydney. Akama JS, Kieti DM. 2003. Measuring tourist sat- the film tourist phenomenon, tourism and film isfaction with Kenya’s wildlife safari: a case for stakeholders can better meet experiences, thus Tsavo West National Park. Tourism Management expanding the positive impacts of such des- 24: 73–81. tinations (Carl et al., 2007; p. 60). This study Beeton S. 2000. It’s a wrap! What happens after the intended to acquire an appreciation of how film crew leaves? An examination of commu- film and television series can induce tourism nity responses to film-induced tourism. In Travel based on this examination of Yorkshire. There and Tourism Research Association (TTRA) National is undoubtedly a drawback of the study in Conference: Lights, Camera, Action — Spotlight on that it is selective instead of widespread or Tourism in the New Millennium, Nickerson NP, comprehensive. Consequently, it is acknowl- Moisey RN, Anddereck KL (eds). Travel and edged that generalisation of the results secured Tourism Research Association: Burbank, CA;127– 136. is speculative (Zikmund, 1997). This method, Beeton S. 2001a. Smiling for the camera: the influ- on the other hand, was suitable given the con- ence of film audiences on a budget tourism temporary nature of the situation. Additional destination. Tourism Culture and Communication research, encompassing a larger range of case 3:15–25. studies, would be advantageous to reveal more Beeton S. 2001b. Cyclops and sirens — demarketing ways in which the media is used, or intervenes, as a proactive response to negative consequences within the environment of the tourism indus- of one-eyed competitive marketing. In TTRA 32nd try. It is also anticipated that future research Conference Proceedings: A Tourism Odyssey, Moisey will be focused on developing fitting tactics RN, Nickerson NP, Andereck KL (eds). Travel regarding the media so that positive relation- and Tourism Research Association: Fort Myers, ships can be developed between the tourist FL; 125–136. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Tourism Res. 10, 423–437 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/jtr
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