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Special Education: Preservice Educators and Cultural Diversity


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A critique of Trent et al.'s "Preparing Preservice Educators for Cultural Diversity: How Far Have We Come?" (2008).

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Special Education: Preservice Educators and Cultural Diversity

  1. 1. Preparing Preservice Educators for Cultural Diversity: How Far Have We Come? Noelle Morris / June 21, 2011
  2. 2. <ul><li>Article: </li></ul><ul><li>Trent, S.C., Kea, C.D., and Oh, K. (2008). Preparing preservice educators for cultural diversity: How far have we come? Exceptional Children, 74 (3): 328-350. </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis: </li></ul><ul><li>“ But what is culturally responsive instruction and how should it look like in TEPs and preschool/early childhood through 12 th -grade classrooms (P-12)” (Trent et al., p. 329), especially in the context of large-scale reforms for excellence and equity in the U.S.? </li></ul><ul><li> Do Trent, Kean, & Oh find what they are looking for? </li></ul><ul><li>Format: </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review: </li></ul><ul><li>extant literature reviews: Cochran, Smith, and Fries (2004); Grant, Elsbree, and Fondrie (2004); Voltz, Dooley, and Jefferies (1999); Webb-Johnson, Artiles, Trent, Jackson, and Velox (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>46 general education articles from 22 journals; 7 special education articles from 5 journals </li></ul><ul><li>qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method sources (many surveys) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Theoretically speaking: </li></ul><ul><li>James A. Banks: multicultural education approaches (p. 329) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) (p. 341) </li></ul><ul><li>Critique: </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitly tie in multicultural education approaches with examples for the literature </li></ul><ul><li>Define: longitudinal, many, majority (inconsistencies in data representation) </li></ul><ul><li>What is lost in the process of removing duplicate articles found in extant literature reviews? How do we actually know how far we have come? </li></ul><ul><li>Location of the participants and studies: types of schools, location of placements, states / too broad OR not enough literature </li></ul><ul><li>Gender – not marginalized (gender is cultural) </li></ul><ul><li>Tables of data: only for special education (p. 336) </li></ul><ul><li>Parallels between general education and special education are not explicitly drawn (but they are there: Hyland and Noffke for GE / Daunic, Correa, and Reyes-Blanes for SE) </li></ul><ul><li>Preservice to inservice transitions: nonexistent </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ But what is culturally responsive instruction and how should it look like in TEPs and preschool/early childhood through 12 th -grade classrooms (P-12)?” (Trent et al., p. 329)
  5. 5. Approaches to Multicultural Education <ul><li>Contributions approach: recognizing the accomplishments and achievements of historically marginalized groups </li></ul><ul><li>Additive approach: added content; does not actually challenge a Eurocentric perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation approach: multiple perspectives are integrated into the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Social justice approach: a curriculum that includes decision making and social action </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Contributions Approach <ul><li>Selecting books and activities that celebrate holidays, heroes, and special events from various cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: spending time reading about Dr. Martin Luther King in January. </li></ul><ul><li>Banks, J.A. (1999).   An Introduction to Multicultural Education  (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Additive Approach <ul><li>This involves incorporating literature by and about people from diverse cultures into the mainstream curriculum without changing the curriculum.  </li></ul><ul><li>Example: examining the perspective of a Native American about Thanksgiving would be adding cultural diversity to the traditional view of Thanksgiving.  </li></ul><ul><li>Banks, J.A. (1999).   An Introduction to Multicultural Education  (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Transformation Approach <ul><li>Changes the structure of the curriculum and encourages students to view concepts, issues, themes, and problems from several ethnic perspectives and points of view.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking and diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: a unit on Thanksgiving would become an entire unit exploring cultural conflict.  </li></ul><ul><li>Banks, J.A. (1999).   An Introduction to Multicultural Education  (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Social Action Approach <ul><li>Combines the transformation approach with activities to strive for social change.  Students are not only instructed to understand and question social issues, but to also do something about important about it.  </li></ul><ul><li>Example: after participating in a unit about recent immigrants to North America, students may write letters to senators, Congress, and newspaper editors to express their opinions about new policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Banks, J.A. (1999).   An Introduction to Multicultural Education  (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Protectionist Media Literacy Movement Arts Education Critical Media Literacy Robert Ferguson’s Iceberg Metaphor <ul><li>Privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Homophobia </li></ul><ul><li>Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>Oppression </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ When the content of what is taught is stressed in schools rather than a way of thinking about that content, the assumptions underlying that content, and the way in which that content is represented, the content is made central to the exclusion of thinking […] the content is not criticized but taken for granted, and, for the most part, accepted.” (Maher, 1992)
  12. 13. <ul><li>Shared and committed leadership by the ministry, school boards, and schools will play a critical role in eliminating discrimination through the identification and removal of bias and barriers. Achieving equity is a shared responsibility; establishing an equitable and inclusive education system requires commitment from all education partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Equity and inclusive education policies and practices will support positive learning environments so that all students feel engaged in and empowered by what they are learning, supported by the teachers and staff from whom they are learning, and welcome in the environment in which they are learning. Students, teachers, and staff learn and work in an environment that is respectful, supportive, and welcoming to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability and transparency will be demonstrated through the use of clear measures of success (based on established indicators) and through communication to the public of our progress towards achieving equity for all students. Accountability is necessary to maintain and enhance public confidence in the education system. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Barriers / cultural markers: race, disabilities, gender (Trent et al., p. 230) Barriers (as per the Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy): race, sexual orientation, physical or mental ability, gender, gender identity, and class  all of these can intersect (Equity and Inclusive Education in Ontario Schools: GUIDELINES FOR POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION, p. 11) “ (In Ontario) While racism continues to be a major focus, the strategy recognizes that Ontario’s publicly funded schools must increase their efforts to develop an approach that will respond to the full range of needs within the education community.” (Equity and Inclusive Education in Ontario Schools: GUIDELINES FOR POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION, p. 11)
  14. 17. Boards will: 2008–2009 • review existing equity and inclusive education policies and/or begin to develop or extend such policies; 2009–2010 • develop or revise policies on equity and inclusive education for implementation by September 2010; 2010–2011 • implement equity and inclusive education policies; embed equity and inclusive education principles in board and school improvement plans; 2011–2012 • implement positive employment practices that support equitable hiring, mentoring, retention, promotion, and succession planning.
  15. 18. Schools will: 2009–2010 • develop and implement strategies to engage students, parents, and the broader community actively in the review, development, and implementation of initiatives to support and promote equity and inclusive education; 2011–2012 • implement board equity and inclusive education policies, programs, and action plans that reflect the needs of their diverse school communities.
  16. 19. UOIT 2011-2012 year required courses for Primary/Junior and Intermediate/Senior programs (Consecutive): Individual Needs and Diversity   CSU Ontario School of Education, 2011-2012 Primary Education: Inclusive Education and the Law   Lakehead, 2011-2012 required courses, Consecutive: Educational Psychology + Teaching Exceptional Students   Niagara University, 2011-2012 required courses: Teaching Students with Special Needs   Nipissing University, 2010-2011, required: Education and Schooling/Educational Psychology, Special Education  Optional: Mental Health Issues in School Populations (NOT OFFERED IN 2010/11) ESL Across the Curriculum (NOT OFFERED IN 2010/11) Exclusion to Inclusion: Imagination and Creativity in the 21st Century Classroom   
  17. 20. OISE, 2011-2012, Elementary/Secondary Program Core Course Components: Teacher Education Seminar  (covers aspects of Special Education)   Trent University, Full Time Primary/Junior and Senior streams: Supporting Literacy and Learners with Special Needs   Tyndale University College: Primary/Junior Track and Junior/Intermediate Track Required Courses: Diversity and Equity Issues in Education Creating Safe, Engaging and Inclusive Learning Environments Differentiated Instruction in the Classroom Context Electives (Teacher Candidates choose one from the following options): English as a Second Language Special Education
  18. 21. University of Western Ontario: 2011-2012: Core Foundations Courses (elementary and secondary) Educational Psychology & Special Education 5005 Equity, Diversity, Social Justice Courses: International Education 5444Q Introduction to Teaching English as a Second Language 5413 Rural & Remote Schools 5435Q/S Teaching First Nations Students 5423Q/S Teaching for Equity and Social Justice:  A Focus on Inclusive Curriculum 5424   University of Windsor, 2010-2011, Required: Differentiated Instruction for Students with Special Needs   Wilfrid Laurier University, Required Courses: EU403: Teaching for Equity and Diversity EU438: Gifted Education     York University, 2011-2012: ED/EDUC 2000 6.00 Teaching and Learning for Inclusive Classrooms ED/PJIE 3500 3.00 Inclusive Education    
  19. 22. Not mentioned: Brock, Laurentian, Queen’s, Ottawa
  20. 23. <ul><li>“ The Greater Essex County District School Board has developed a comprehensive diversity training program called “Diversity Matters” as part of its New Teacher Induction Program. This mandatory one-day workshop consists of four modules designed to help teachers meaningfully address the changing needs of Ontario’s increasingly diverse classrooms.” (Equity document, p. 29) </li></ul><ul><li>Is one day enough to meaningfully address anything? </li></ul><ul><li>How should we be preparing teachers for cultural diversity? </li></ul>