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Social Change in 20th Century Ireland

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Social Change in 20th Century Ireland

  1. 1. Social Change in Ireland
  2. 2. What you need to know • Rural Life since 1900: Life in the early 20th century, types of farmer, bad conditions. • Rural Life in Recent Times: Rural electrification, the EEC, Social Life. • Urban Life since 1900: Suburbs, Bad conditions, Health. • Urban Life in Recent Times: Better conditions, Corporation Housing, Middle-Class, Dublin City.
  3. 3. People in History
  4. 4. Rural Ireland • Most people in 1900 lived on farms or small towns – a rural society • Many small farmers lived just above subsistence level • Running water did not exist (people used wells) • No electricity – candles or oil lamps used • Houses had very little furniture.
  5. 5. Sugan chair – locally made
  6. 6. Kitchens in 1900
  7. 7. Kitchens today
  8. 8. 5 Differences between kitchens today and in 1900 1. _____________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ 3. _____________________________________ 4. _____________________________________ 5. _____________________________________
  9. 9. Women’s status in 1900
  10. 10. 5 Differences between women’s status today and in 1900 1. _____________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ 3. _____________________________________ 4. _____________________________________ 5. _____________________________________
  11. 11. Farming in 1900 vs today • Lack of mechanisation • Women looked after the small animals & helped harvest crops • Men ploughed the fields and did the “heavier” work • Meitheal – neighbours helping each other at harvest time. • Children helped during holidays (long school holidays today come from this)
  12. 12. Meitheal in the 1950s
  13. 13. Schoolkids in rural Ireland
  14. 14. Rural Electrification • By the end of the 1950s the electricity network had been extended from urban areas to rural. • This led to many improvements on farms – Electric milking machines – Pumped running water (showers, flushing toilets etc) – Electric appliances for housework (hoovers, irons etc) • It gave women more free time, which meant they could get jobs off the farms.
  15. 15. 1973 – Ireland joins the European Union • Biggest single change occurred when Ireland joined the EU and signed up to the Common Agricultural Policy • Subsidies for farmers • Guaranteed prices for farm produce • Competition from other countries • Quotas introduced • Grants for infrastructure (roads etc)
  16. 16. Urban life
  17. 17. Urban life in 1900: Poor People • Tenement House – an overcrowded house in an urban area, usually occupied by several families • No running water or electricity • Disease easily spread due to overcrowding and dirty conditions. • Most poor people were unskilled and earned low wages (1 pound a week). • Lived close to work (couldn’t afford to travel far)
  18. 18. Urban life today: Poor People • Social Welfare means less people in absolute poverty • Education improved – less people unskilled • Housing improved – Local authority manages much housing stcck • People live in suburbs – transport is cheaper
  19. 19. Tenements
  20. 20. Tenements
  21. 21. Urban life in 1900 – the middle/upper classes • Many people had housemaid(s) to do the housework • Middle class rented their houses; rich people owned theirs • Lived in the suburbs; people did not commute far by today’s standards • Most jobs were in business, or as lawyers, or as Government officials; very few good jobs in industry
  22. 22. Education & women’s rights • In 1900, most children only attended primary school • 1967: Free Secondary School education introduced – student numbers began to steadily increase • 1900: Schools strictly gender based • 2000: Mixed schools the norm • 1900: Some subjects (science, higher maths) only thought to boys • 2000: All subjects open to all • 1900: Majority of men in University • 2000: Women a majority in University!
  23. 23. Women’s Rights in Ireland 1900-2000 Why did shorter dresses become popular?
  24. 24. Women’s role in World War One • Mothers • Domestic support for men • “Damsels in distress” • Weak
  25. 25. Women’s role in World War Two • Workers • Fellow Patriots on the home front • NOT “Damsels in distress” • Strong!
  26. 26. Physical Exercise – 1900
  27. 27. Physical Exercise - today
  28. 28. Conflicting influences on women
  29. 29. Women’s rights: Key events • 1918: Women get the right to Vote • Until the 1970s, Women could only work in certain jobs. Women in the Civil Service had to give up their job on marriage (Marriage Bar) • 1972 – Commission on the Status of Women: This Government report recommended changes to the law to end discrimination against women • The EU forced Ireland to remove marriage bar in 1973 • Contraception & family planning – legalised in 1970s • Employment Equality Act 1977 – Women doing same job as men get same pay • 1990 – First Woman President (Mary Robinson) • 1995 – Divorce Legalised
  30. 30. 5 Differences between women’s status today and in 1900 1. _____________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ 3. _____________________________________ 4. _____________________________________ 5. _____________________________________
  31. 31. Women’s Suffrage • Women’s Suffrage refers to the struggle by women to gain the right to vote (suffrage) in the early 1900s • A prominent Irish campaigner for women’s right to vote was Hanna Sheehy Skeffington • Similar campaigns took place in Britain and America • Many methods used – including violent action. • The Irish Women’s Franchise League were an organisation which campaigned for Women’s Right to Vote.
  32. 32. Women campaigners in 1913
  33. 33. Transport Changes
  34. 34. 1900 - transport • In 1900 – many people walked. Other forms of transport were expensive • Horses and Carts were used by rich people – streets smelled of dung! • Trams in the cities, pulled first by horses and later electric
  35. 35. Trains • In 1900, powered by coal (steam trains). • Now either diesel or electric (DART) • Many rail lines closed due to competition from cars
  36. 36. Bicycles • Bicycles became very popular after they were introduced in the early 1900s • People often cycled 40 or 50 miles a day to attend a match or visit friends!
  37. 37. Cars • Expensive and difficult to use at first, soon became very popular • No such thing as traffic lights or road markings (or rules!) at first. • Eventually became cheaper and cheaper and more people bought them.
  38. 38. International Travel – then and now
  39. 39. 2007 HL
  40. 40. 5 Differences in transport between today and 1900 1. _____________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ 3. _____________________________________ 4. _____________________________________ 5. _____________________________________
  41. 41. Communications
  42. 42. Entertainment • In 1900, people had very little free time – Working day was quite long – 1 ½ days off per week (Saturday afternoon and Sunday) – No holiday leave – Bank Holidays and Christmas only official holidays – For farmers – NO holidays at all!
  43. 43. Entertainment • Visiting neighbour’s homes (Cuaird) • Weddings/Christenings etc • For rich people, going to balls was popular
  44. 44. Music Halls & Sports • These were theatres with juggling acts, comedians, acobats and singers, one after another (known as a variety show) • Later they began to show short film clips and over time they became the cinemas of today • The GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association) was founded in 1885 and Hurling and Gaelic Football had become very popular
  45. 45. Croke Park, home of the GAA
  46. 46. Entertainment in the home • 1920s – Radio (known as the “wireless” became common • 1960s – Television began broadcasting (one channel, RTE 1) • 1980s/1990s – Computers and Internet became popular • This reduced the need to call to neighbours houses (cuaird)
  47. 47. Films • First cinema in Ireland – 1909 • First film with sound – 1927. • The cinema was cheaper than variety shows and gradually replaced them • 1980s – arrival of videos meant that cinemas became multi screen
  48. 48. Live Music • 1920s – dance halls appeared • 1960s – Showbands began giving concerts • 1960s – 2000 – as people could travel further, big concerts (such as Electric Picnic) became popular • 1970s – Discos and nightclubs appered
  49. 49. Holidays • 1900 – only rich people went on overseas holidays • 1960s to 2000 - Arrival of Airplanes and higher wages meant more people could afford to travel abroad
  50. 50. Sports • Arrival of Radio and TV made more people watch sports • As people drove more, cycling and walking became leisure activities
  51. 51. 2011 Higher Level Paper
  52. 52. 2013 Higher Paper

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