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Leaving Cert - Brazil. Settlement Patterns, urban areas, social problems, economic development, environmental issues, importance of Brazil as a non-European region

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  1. 1. Brazil – a non European Region
  2. 2. Brazil – the “Southern Superpower” Fifth largest country in the world by area and population Population (2011) – 190 million Young – 2/3 of pop is under 30 Huge natural resources (e.g. Amazon Rainforest) Huge cities – Rio de Janeiro has a pop of over 11 million but is only the second biggest city in the country Can you name the biggest city in the country? But does it deserve superpower status?
  3. 3. Brazil compared to Europe
  4. 4. Name these world leaders
  5. 5. A superpower? Brazil’s wealth is very unevenly distributed – 60% of its population live in poverty Militarily it is relatively weak (much smaller military than Germany or Russia, who are smaller in population) Good at football, but….. Leaders are not instantly recognisable (President – Dilma vana Rousseff) So why do people talk about it being a Superpower?
  6. 6. An emerging economic giant
  7. 7. An emerging economic giant Brazil’s economy is growing rapidly huge population means it is set to become a major power in the world economy Massive natural resources Massive human potential Brazil exports lots of food, raw materials (esp timber) and energy – this makes it increasingly important in the 21st century Ireland is working to gain a slice of this emerging market
  8. 8. Brazil and the environment Brazil’s importance in the struggle against Global Warming has grown in the past few decades Amazon Rainforest is the world’s largest carbon “sink” Simply put, the world needs Brazil to fix Global Warming
  9. 9. Ireland and Brazil news/why-ireland-for-brazil/
  10. 10. Relief, Climate, Drainage – p 383-84 Brazil is divided largely into two geographical areas – Southern half is the highlands (Brazilian Plateau) In the North is the Amazon basin – home of the rainforest The Amazon river (largest river in the world) drains much of the country Climate – Amazon is equatorial, southern highlands tropical and North east is semi arid Sketch 2 maps – relief and climate
  11. 11. Rainfall Large parts of the country are equatorial Warm, moist air rises at Equator - convectional rainfall –– hence Amazon rainforest South East Coast receives relief rainfall North East – very dry
  12. 12. Soils – p 386 Terra Rossa – Italian for “red earth” – a fertile soil, contains plenty of humus (organic material) – red from iron oxidisation (rust) Occurs in Sao Paulo Excellent soil for agriculture
  13. 13. Soils – P386 Latosol – soil underneath the tropical rainforest A rather infertile soil – only organic material is at the surface, rotted down quickly Very little humus beyond a few inches If rainforests are chopped down, soils can become badly leached (nutrients washed away by rainwater)
  14. 14. Leached latosol (laterite)
  15. 15. Natural Vegetation - Amazon
  16. 16. Natural Vegetation
  17. 17. Savanna/Cerrado
  18. 18. Thorny Scrub/Caatinga
  19. 19. Workbook catch up Q1, 2, 4,5 and 6 page 126 - 128
  20. 20. Brazil – Agriculture Agriculture – 25% of GDP 60 million hectares of land is devoted to agriculture – the area of the whole of Ireland is just 8.5 million hectares High level of mechanisation and specialisation Main Crops – Corn, Soya and Sugar Cane World leader in beef production (to the disgust of the Irish Farmers Association) Biofuels seen as the new growth potential
  21. 21. Biofuels and Brazil
  22. 22. Biofuels – making Brazil into the “New Saudi Arabia”…
  23. 23. ….and helping Brazil make some new friends….
  24. 24. …but it all comes at a price
  25. 25. Coffee
  26. 26. Brazil’s farming story in 5 minutes
  27. 27. Forestry Brazil has obvious huge potential (Amazon Rainforest) Also has man made forestry for low grade use Massive land area – massive potential But also massive problems – Amazon deforestation causing difficulties – much of the timber from the Amazon is cleared illegally Big demand for Teak and other tropical hardwoods
  28. 28. Forestry
  29. 29. Mining Like Chile, Brazil has large copper reserves (1.8% of world) Also becoming a major source of rare earth metals (metals for specialised uses, eg mobile phones)
  30. 30. Secondary Activities in Brazil (p389) Like Ireland, Brazil is a “late developer” in terms of Secondary Activities – underdeveloped until relatively recently Development came in stages – after WW2 and then again recently Massive Debts have slowed the country’s economic development until recently Country’s large population means there is a ready market for industrial products Energy Production a huge part of Brazil’s economic development
  31. 31. Location of Industry Concentration of Industry
  32. 32. Brazil Economy – Special report
  33. 33. Tertiary Activity in Brazil – P 390 - 392 Transport – Brazil is underdeveloped in this regard Roads poor, trains limited – it acts as a “brake” on the country’s development – Brazil (like Ireland until recently) is under pressure to improve it’s transport infrastructure Investment in education, healthcare means that employment in these areas has grown But the single biggest driver of Tertiary activity in Brazil is Tourism
  34. 34. Tourism – Rio Carnival
  35. 35. Iguacu Falls
  36. 36. Beaches…
  37. 37. Pantanal
  38. 38. Human Resources (p393) Contrary to some perceptions of a jungle nation, Brazilians are mostly urban dwellers Also live close to the Atlantic – milder climate and ease of access Due to poverty, many Brazilian cities have favelas (shanty towns) – as the country’s economy grows, money is being invested in improving these areas. Brazil is moving from stage 2 to stage 3 of pop cycle – however significant levels of poverty mean it will be some time before it moves into stage 4
  39. 39. Human Resources Brazil Today
  40. 40. Brazil’s Cities Brazil’s major cities grew rapidly until recently as people arrived from rural areas looking for work However this has led to the creation of shanty towns called favelas – unplanned urban areas with poor services Brazil’s recent economic growth has led to the improvement of the favelas and also to some migration back to rural areas as the rural economy grows
  41. 41. Favelas
  42. 42. Life in the favelas isn’t always easy…
  43. 43. Native Populations…
  44. 44. Brazil as “melting pot” – p396 Migration – often from poor North East to richer South East Also from Rural to Urban Planned Urban to Rural migration in the 60s ended in failure – later migration driven by a developing rural economy was a success Immigration from other countries and the descendants of colonial migrants means that Brazil is a “melting pot” of different cultures.
  45. 45. The Rich/Poor Divide
  46. 46. The Rich/Poor Divide
  47. 47. The Rich/Poor Divide
  48. 48. Colonialism and its impact
  49. 49. Deforestation
  50. 50. Reasons for Deforestation Cash crop production (e.g. coffee) and cattle ranching Logging Demand for wood and fuel Construction of large dams Mining and Industry Government organised colonisation schemes
  51. 51. Deforestation
  52. 52. Slash and Burn agriculture
  53. 53. Slash and Burn Agriculture
  54. 54. Deforested area growing biofuel crops
  55. 55. Itapu Hydroelectic power station
  56. 56. Itapu Hydroelectic power station