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Formulare // MM 08-11

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Präsentation vom 11. 01. 2010 – Übersicht über Formulare und ihre Verwendung. Zusammen mit den gedruckten Unterlagen: http://www.slideshare.net/noelboss/documents

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Formulare // MM 08-11

  1. 1. connected Formulare © 2010 by Noël Bossart
  2. 2. Formulare Formulare werden eingesetzt, um vom Benutzer Informationen abzufragen und (in den meisten Fällen) an den Server zu senden. Praktisch alle Webseiten setzen Formulare ein. Modernes Webdesign 7.3.7
  3. 3. Formulare <form method='get' action='results.php'> ! <fieldset id="suche" class=""> ! ! <legend>Suche</legend> ! ! <label for='q'>Suchen: </label> ! ! <input id='q' name='q' type='text' value='' /> ! ! <input type='submit' value='suchen' /> ! </fieldset> </form>
  4. 4. <form /> <form action="ziel.html" method="get"> action = Zielseite: ziel.html method = Übertragungsart: get: Daten werden über die URL übermittelt post: Daten werden durch den Browser mit der Seitenanfrage übermittelt
  5. 5. method get <form action="ziel.html" method="get"> Vorteile: Solche Abfragen können per Link verschickt, oder als Bookmark gespeichert werden Nachteile: Die Struktur des Formulars ist offen-gelegt und Manipulationen werden damit erleichtert Gebrauch: Suchen, Filter, alles was gespeichert oder versendet werden soll
  6. 6. method get <form action="ziel.html" method="get"> Vorteile: Solche Abfragen können per Link verschickt, oder als Bookmark gespeichert werden Nachteile: Die Struktur des Formulars ist offen-gelegt und Manipulationen werden damit erleichtert Gebrauch: Suchen, Filter, alles was gespeichert oder versendet werden soll
  7. 7. method get <form action="ziel.html" method="get"> Vorteile: Solche Abfragen können per Link verschickt, oder als Bookmark gespeichert werden Nachteile: Die Struktur des Formulars ist offen-gelegt und Manipulationen werden damit erleichtert Gebrauch: Suchen, Filter, alles was gespeichert oder versendet werden soll
  8. 8. method post <form action="ziel.html" method="post"> Vorteile: Die Formular-Parameter sind nicht offen über die URL zugänglich und es können mehr und komplexere Daten übertragen werden Nachteile: Abfragen welche über ein solches Formular gemacht werden können nicht als Bookmark gespeichert oder an Freunde versendet werden Gebrauch: Anmeldeformulare, Bestellungen, sensible Daten
  9. 9. method post <form action="ziel.html" method="post"> Vorteile: Die Formular-Parameter sind nicht offen über die URL zugänglich und es können mehr und komplexere Daten übertragen werden Nachteile: Abfragen welche über ein solches Formular gemacht werden können nicht als Bookmark gespeichert oder an Freunde versendet werden Gebrauch: Anmeldeformulare, Bestellungen, sensible Daten
  10. 10. method post <form action="ziel.html" method="post"> Vorteile: Die Formular-Parameter sind nicht offen über die URL zugänglich und es können mehr und komplexere Daten übertragen werden Nachteile: Abfragen welche über ein solches Formular gemacht werden können nicht als Bookmark gespeichert oder an Freunde versendet werden Gebrauch: Anmeldeformulare, Bestellungen, sensible Daten
  11. 11. <form /> Zu beachten ist, dass bei XHTML strict nur Block Elemente im Form-Tag stehen dürfen! <form action="ziel.html" method="post"> <input type="submit" value="senden" /> </form>
  12. 12. <form /> Zu beachten ist, dass bei XHTML strict nur Block Elemente im Form-Tag stehen dürfen! <form action="ziel.html" method="post"> <p> <input type="submit" value="senden" /> </p> </form>
  13. 13. Elemente input type=”text” input type=”radio” input type=”checkbox” input type=”submit” button select / option textarea label
  14. 14. Elemente Wie wir gesehen haben, gibt es vom Tag input mehrere Ausprägungen welche über das Type Attribut gesteuert werden. Damit diese Elemente über CSS einzeln angesteuert werden, empfehle ich das Setzen einer Klasse pro Element welche dem Type entspricht: <input type="text" class="text" ... /> <input type="radio" class="radio" ... /> <input type="checkbox" class="check" ... /> <input type="button" class="button" ... /> <input type="submit" class="button submit" ... />
  15. 15. Formular: label’s Der Einsatz von Label’s ist sehr wichtig um die Usability zu erhöhen und die Semantik des Formulars zu gewährleisten. Damit werden Beschreibungstexte mit dem eigentlichen Eingabeelement verbunden. Durch einen Klick auf das Label, wird das Eingabefeld angewählt: <label for=”s”>Suchen:</label> <input id=”s” name=”suchbegriff” value=”” />
  16. 16. Radios Radios – und manchmal auch Checkboxen – sind Eingabefelder, welche in Gruppen vorkommen. Man kann damit Abfragen in einer ODER Beziehung tätigen da immer nur eine Möglichkeit pro Radio-Gruppe wählbar ist. Die Gruppe wird über das name Attribut gebildet. <input type="radio" name="gender" value="m" /> <input type="radio" name="gender" value="f" />
  17. 17. Radios Wenn ein Radio ausgewählt ist, hat ist das Attribut checked gesetzt. Man beachte das in XHTML Attribute nicht einzeln stehen dürfen und daher checked=”checked” geschrieben wird. In HTML darf checked als allein stehendes Attribut vorkommen. <input type="radio" name="gender" value="m" checked="checked" /> <input type="radio" name="gender" value="f" />
  18. 18. Checkboxen Auch Checkboxen kommen oft in Gruppen vor – können aber im Gegensatz zu Radios auch alleine stehen. Die Radios lassen Mehrfachauswahlen – also UND Verknüpfungen – zu. Sie sind ebenfalls über das name Attribut miteinander verbunden. Auch Checkboxen haben das Attribut checked welches angibt, ob eine Checkbox ausgewählt ist. Da jedoch mehrere Auswahlen gleichzeitig vorkommen können ist es wie ein Array aufgebaut: <input type="checkbox" name="hobby[kino]" value="true" /> <input type="checkbox" name="hobby[tanzen]" value="true" /> <input type="checkbox" name="hobby[fussball]" value="true" />
  19. 19. Senden... Das Formular wird meist mittels eines Buttons abgesendet. Dieser Button (es können noch weitere Buttons vorhanden sein, welche nicht den Senden- Event auslösen) hat das Type-Attribut submit: <input type="submit" value="suchen" />
  20. 20. Serverseite Auf dem Server werden die Werte je nach Sende-Methode in einem POST oder einem GET Array ankommen. Bei PHP ist dies das $_POST und das $_GET Array. Die Indizes dieser Arrays bilden die name Attribute der Formular- Elemente. Das name Attribut ist also im Prinzip der Name der Variabel für die Serverseite und das value Attribut enthält den Variabeln-Wert.
  21. 21. Serverseite Auf dem Server werden die Werte je nach Sende-Methode in einem POST oder einem GET Array ankommen. Bei PHP ist dies das $_POST und das $_GET Array. Die Indizes dieser Arrays bilden die name Attribute der Formular- Elemente. Das name Attribut ist also im Prinzip der Name der Variabel für die Serverseite und das value Attribut enthält den Variabeln-Wert. Array( [username] => max [hobbies] => Array( [kino] => true ) )
  22. 22. Aufgabe Erstellen eines Formulares für eine Medien-Bibliothek: - Name des Mediums - Art des Mediums (DVD, Buch, Blueray) - Beschreibung (Kurztext) - Erscheinungsjahr - Sprache - Genre - Bewertung (0-5)

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