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20
Ready Notes

The Controlling
Process
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Slide content created by Joseph B. Mosca, Monmouth University.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Why Control?
• Control is an issue every
manager faces.
• How does control help
the manager?
– Control is a process to
regulate organizational
activities to make them
consistent with
established:
• Plans
• Targets
• Standards

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 2
What Is the Purpose of Control?
• It is one of the four
basic management
functions and has four
basic functions. What
are the functions?
– Adapts to change.
– Limits accumulation of
error.
– Helps coping with
complexity.
– Helps minimize costs.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 3
The Purpose of Control

Adapt to
environmental change

Limit the
accumulation of error

Control helps the organization

Cope with organizational
complexity

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

Minimize costs

20 - 4
Name the Levels of Control?
• Operational control:
– Focuses on the processes used to transform
resources into products or services.

• Financial control:
– Concerned with financial resources.

• Structural control:
– How the elements of structure are serving the
intended purposes.

• Strategic control:
– How effective are the functional strategies helping
the organization meet its goals.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 5
Figure 20.2: Levels of Control

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 6
Who Is Responsible for Control?
• Control rests with all
managers.
• Large corporations
have a controller.
• What does a
controller do?
– Helps line managers
with their control
activities.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 7
What Are the Steps in the Control Process?
• Establish standards.
• Measure performance.
• Compare performance against
standards.
• Determine need for corrective action.
• The sub-steps:
– Maintain status quo.
– Correct deviation.
– Change standards.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 8
Figure 20.3: Steps in the Control Process

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 9
What Does Preliminary Control Monitor?
• It attempts to monitor quality and
quantity of:
– Financial resources.
– Material resources.
– Human resources.
– Information resources.

• Why?
– Before they become part of the system.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 10
What Is the Purpose of Screening Controls?
• They focus on how
inputs are being
transformed into
outputs.
• They also rely
heavily on feedback
processes during
the transformation
process.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 11
What Do Postaction Controls Focus On?
• Focus is on outputs from
the organizational system.
• What do they monitor?
– They monitor the output
results of the organization
after the transformation
process is complete.
– (see Figure 20.4 illustration)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 12
Figure 20.4: Forms of Operational Control

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 13
What Are the Reasons for Financial Controls?
• They control the financial resources as
they flow into the organization.
• Then they are held by the organization.
• Then they flow out of the organization.
• Businesses must manage their finances
so that revenues are sufficient to cover
expenses and still return a profit.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 14
What Is a Budget?
• It is a plan expressed in numerical
terms.
• What is the time frame for a budget?
– Usually a year, but sometimes broken
down into quarters and months.

• Budgets are quantitative in nature and
provide yardsticks for measuring
performance and facilitating
comparisons.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 15
What Are the Types of Budgets?
• Types of budget:
– Financial
– Operating
– Non-monetary

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

• What the budget
shows:
– Sources and use of
cash.
– Operations in
financial terms.
– Operations in nonfinancial terms.

20 - 16
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 17
Developing Budgets

Operating
Unit
Budget
Request

Division
Budget
Request

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

Organizational
Budget Prepared
by Budget
Committee
Approved by
Budget
Committee

20 - 18
Figure 20.5: Developing Budgets in
Organizations

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 19
Other Tools for Financial Control
Financial Statement:
A profile of
some aspect of an
organization’s financial
circumstances.

Income Statement: A
summary of financial
performance over a period of
time, usually one year.

Balance Sheet: List of assets
and liabilities of an
organization at a specific
point in time, usually the last
day of the fiscal year.
Ratio Analysis: The
calculation of one or more
financial ratios to assess
some aspect of the
organization’s financial
health.

Audit: An independent appraisal of an organization’s
accounting, financial, and operational system.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 20
What Is Bureaucratic Control?
• A form of organizational
control characterized by
formal and mechanistic
structural
arrangements.
• What is clan control?
– An approach to
organizational control
characterized by informal
and organic structural
arrangements.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 21
Figure 20.6: Organizational Control

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 22
What Is Meant by Strategic Control
• Control aimed at
ensuring that the
organization is
maintaining an
effective alignment
with its environment
and moving toward
achieving its
strategic goals.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 23
Characteristics of Effective Control

• Integration with
planning
• Flexibility
• Accuracy
• Timeliness
• Objectivity

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 24
What Influences Resistance to Control?
• Over-control
• Inappropriate focus
• Rewards for
inefficiency
• Too much
accountability

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 25
How Can Resistance to Control Be
Overcome?
• When employees are
involved with planning
and implementing the
control system, they are
less likely to resist.
• Verification procedures
need to be developed to
provide checks and
balances in order for
managers to verify the
accuracy of
performance indicators.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin

20 - 26

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The controlling process

  • 1. 20 Ready Notes The Controlling Process For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page. Slide content created by Joseph B. Mosca, Monmouth University. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Why Control? • Control is an issue every manager faces. • How does control help the manager? – Control is a process to regulate organizational activities to make them consistent with established: • Plans • Targets • Standards Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 2
  • 3. What Is the Purpose of Control? • It is one of the four basic management functions and has four basic functions. What are the functions? – Adapts to change. – Limits accumulation of error. – Helps coping with complexity. – Helps minimize costs. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 3
  • 4. The Purpose of Control Adapt to environmental change Limit the accumulation of error Control helps the organization Cope with organizational complexity Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Minimize costs 20 - 4
  • 5. Name the Levels of Control? • Operational control: – Focuses on the processes used to transform resources into products or services. • Financial control: – Concerned with financial resources. • Structural control: – How the elements of structure are serving the intended purposes. • Strategic control: – How effective are the functional strategies helping the organization meet its goals. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 5
  • 6. Figure 20.2: Levels of Control Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 6
  • 7. Who Is Responsible for Control? • Control rests with all managers. • Large corporations have a controller. • What does a controller do? – Helps line managers with their control activities. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 7
  • 8. What Are the Steps in the Control Process? • Establish standards. • Measure performance. • Compare performance against standards. • Determine need for corrective action. • The sub-steps: – Maintain status quo. – Correct deviation. – Change standards. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 8
  • 9. Figure 20.3: Steps in the Control Process Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 9
  • 10. What Does Preliminary Control Monitor? • It attempts to monitor quality and quantity of: – Financial resources. – Material resources. – Human resources. – Information resources. • Why? – Before they become part of the system. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 10
  • 11. What Is the Purpose of Screening Controls? • They focus on how inputs are being transformed into outputs. • They also rely heavily on feedback processes during the transformation process. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 11
  • 12. What Do Postaction Controls Focus On? • Focus is on outputs from the organizational system. • What do they monitor? – They monitor the output results of the organization after the transformation process is complete. – (see Figure 20.4 illustration) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 12
  • 13. Figure 20.4: Forms of Operational Control Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 13
  • 14. What Are the Reasons for Financial Controls? • They control the financial resources as they flow into the organization. • Then they are held by the organization. • Then they flow out of the organization. • Businesses must manage their finances so that revenues are sufficient to cover expenses and still return a profit. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 14
  • 15. What Is a Budget? • It is a plan expressed in numerical terms. • What is the time frame for a budget? – Usually a year, but sometimes broken down into quarters and months. • Budgets are quantitative in nature and provide yardsticks for measuring performance and facilitating comparisons. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 15
  • 16. What Are the Types of Budgets? • Types of budget: – Financial – Operating – Non-monetary Copyright © Houghton Mifflin • What the budget shows: – Sources and use of cash. – Operations in financial terms. – Operations in nonfinancial terms. 20 - 16
  • 17. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 17
  • 18. Developing Budgets Operating Unit Budget Request Division Budget Request Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Organizational Budget Prepared by Budget Committee Approved by Budget Committee 20 - 18
  • 19. Figure 20.5: Developing Budgets in Organizations Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 19
  • 20. Other Tools for Financial Control Financial Statement: A profile of some aspect of an organization’s financial circumstances. Income Statement: A summary of financial performance over a period of time, usually one year. Balance Sheet: List of assets and liabilities of an organization at a specific point in time, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Ratio Analysis: The calculation of one or more financial ratios to assess some aspect of the organization’s financial health. Audit: An independent appraisal of an organization’s accounting, financial, and operational system. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 20
  • 21. What Is Bureaucratic Control? • A form of organizational control characterized by formal and mechanistic structural arrangements. • What is clan control? – An approach to organizational control characterized by informal and organic structural arrangements. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 21
  • 22. Figure 20.6: Organizational Control Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 22
  • 23. What Is Meant by Strategic Control • Control aimed at ensuring that the organization is maintaining an effective alignment with its environment and moving toward achieving its strategic goals. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 23
  • 24. Characteristics of Effective Control • Integration with planning • Flexibility • Accuracy • Timeliness • Objectivity Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 24
  • 25. What Influences Resistance to Control? • Over-control • Inappropriate focus • Rewards for inefficiency • Too much accountability Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 25
  • 26. How Can Resistance to Control Be Overcome? • When employees are involved with planning and implementing the control system, they are less likely to resist. • Verification procedures need to be developed to provide checks and balances in order for managers to verify the accuracy of performance indicators. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin 20 - 26