An Empirical Study of How Chinese
Graduate Student Mobility
Underpins Research Universities
Nobuyuki SHIRSKAWA
shirakawa@n...
INTRODUCTION
International student mobility
in higher education
• discussed from the aspect of the migration of
potential highly skille...
In this study…
• We shed light on
– The Chinese exporting national research universities
– which underpin world-class rese...
SOURCES AND DATA
Sources and data
• Biographical notes and author trajectory
– we investigate the authors’ biographical notes that are
atta...
Research domains and data
1. Robotics
– A key research domain underpinning the next-generation industry.
– Applications ar...
Author data, papers, authors, and researchers
8
Author data
Paper
Author
An identcal researcher
Number of researchers Numb...
Counting method for internationally moved
researchers in educational phase
9
(a) International flow of a researcher
on the...
RESULTS
Characteristic institutions
• Institutions providing researchers to other institutions abroad
– Universities in China typi...
Peculiarities of research domains 1
• Computer vision
• Firms represented by
Microsoft can also be
considered alternatives...
Peculiarities of research domains 2
• Robotics
• No institution in the robotics
domain provides as many
researchers to oth...
Peculiarities of research domains 3
• Electron devices
• The Belgian international
collaborative research institute IMEC
r...
Characteristic institutions in China
• Concentrating especially on computer vision, we
digitally illustrate the internatio...
Appendix: Detected researchers as sorted by degree
Doctor Master Bachelor
Tsinghua University
1. Tsinghua University
• Alumni from Tsinghua University
provide significant input at other
research universities. Many ba...
2. University of Science and Technology of China
• Many of the authors entered
master’s and doctoral programs in
the Unite...
3. Zhejiang University
• Alumni from Zhejiang
University provide
significant input all
over the world, not
only at researc...
4. Peking University
• Many of these authors entered
master’s and doctoral programs
in the United States. Even
though a hi...
5. Xi’an Jiaotong University
• Many of the authors entered master’s and doctoral programs in the
United States. Even thoug...
Conclusion
• Complementary relationships between the
top-ranked research universities and the
exporting national research ...
And… Discussion
• For further insights to our study,
• your valuable comments are
greatly appreciated!
清听感谢
• Our research materials are also available at
• Official report (in Japanese)
• 研究者国際流動性の論文著者情報に基づく定量分析 -ロボティクス、コ
ンピ...
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An empirical study of how chinese graduate student

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6th Japan China Higher Education Forum @Doshisha UNIV. KYOTO, Japan 27.Aug.2013

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An empirical study of how chinese graduate student

  1. 1. An Empirical Study of How Chinese Graduate Student Mobility Underpins Research Universities Nobuyuki SHIRSKAWA shirakawa@nistep.go.jp Science and Technology Foresight Center, National Institute Science and Technology Policy, Japan
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. International student mobility in higher education • discussed from the aspect of the migration of potential highly skilled workers (e.g. Brooks and Waters 2009, 2011), – relevant to brain drain and brain circulation in the context of global workforce issues (OECD 2009, 2010). • Institutional classification in globalising higher education, Marginson (2006) – (1) World market of elite universities, – (2) Exporting national research universities, – (3) Teaching-focused export institutions, – (4) Nationally bound research universities and – (5) Lesser-status national/local institutions.
  4. 4. In this study… • We shed light on – The Chinese exporting national research universities – which underpin world-class research universities – based upon the empirical analysis on the international mobility of graduate students in specific fields. • Sources and data – This article focuses on international graduate student mobility between institutions, although public statistical data has been insufficient to assess worldwide student mobility between institutions.
  5. 5. SOURCES AND DATA
  6. 6. Sources and data • Biographical notes and author trajectory – we investigate the authors’ biographical notes that are attached to journal articles. – Scholarly articles published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), – which is the largest professional association for electronics- related disciplines, • International mobility of researchers in specific research domains – Investigates educational trajectories of approximately 7,000 researchers – Biographical notes in journal articles. Institutions awarding bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees and affiliations
  7. 7. Research domains and data 1. Robotics – A key research domain underpinning the next-generation industry. – Applications are expanding from conventional fields to new fields such as welfare, etc. 2. Computer Vision – Commodity computers, image devices and the Internet – It is relatively easy to start business on the basis of research outcome. ⇒ startup companies 3. Electron Devices – A key research domain underpinning large segments of the electronics industry
  8. 8. Author data, papers, authors, and researchers 8 Author data Paper Author An identcal researcher Number of researchers Number of authors Temporal direction Analysis of international mobility Researcher data Author data Number of papers Without identical researchers Contains the duplication of an identical researcher Correct duplication Avinash Jain received the BTech degree in electrical engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay in 1997 and the MS degree from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign in 1999. Since August of 1999, he has been working as a system engineer at QUALCOMM Inc., where he is working on design and development of the cdma2000 reverse link. Institutions awarding doctorate, master’s and bachelor’s degrees as well as affiliation Definition of researcher in this study: Individual authors who published papers in the top ranked journals.
  9. 9. Counting method for internationally moved researchers in educational phase 9 (a) International flow of a researcher on the basis of countries (b) International flow of a researcher on the basis of institutions Independently counts outward and homeward movements Ignore institutional movements within the country Country A Country B Country C X Y Z W Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree Doctorate degree Affiliation A B C B Institution Country X Y Z W Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree Doctorate degree Affiliation A B B A Institution Country Institution X Institution Y Institution W Institution Z Country A Country B Paper publication
  10. 10. RESULTS
  11. 11. Characteristic institutions • Institutions providing researchers to other institutions abroad – Universities in China typify large outflow institutions that provide numerous researchers to other institutions abroad in all three domains. – In the computer vision domain, a research institute in China and a university in Israel are also typical of such institutions. – In the electron devices domain, many researchers from the universities in South Korea and Taiwan go abroad, indicating that institutions in East Asia tend to provide researchers to various institutions abroad. • Institutions receiving researchers from abroad – Universities in the United States and Singapore receive many researchers from abroad, typify large inflow institutions in all three research domains. – It is noteworthy that both the National University of Singapore and the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore receive as many researchers from abroad as do the top-ranked research universities in the United States.
  12. 12. Peculiarities of research domains 1 • Computer vision • Firms represented by Microsoft can also be considered alternatives to research universities as receivers of many researchers from around the world in the computer vision domain. • A relatively high number of researchers belong to the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) but few belong to University of Science and Technology of China. Table 2. The number of articles on computer vision by affiliation
  13. 13. Peculiarities of research domains 2 • Robotics • No institution in the robotics domain provides as many researchers to other institutions abroad as do institutions in the computer vision and electron devices domains. • This result suggests that researchers’ international mobility at the institutional level in the robotics domain is lower than that in the other domains. Table 3. The number of articles on robotics by affiliationcomputer vision by affiliation
  14. 14. Peculiarities of research domains 3 • Electron devices • The Belgian international collaborative research institute IMEC receives many researchers from abroad. • Universities are the major institutions in South Korea, Taiwan and China, whereas firms are the major institutions in Japan. • This in turn suggests that research on computer vision and electron devices is more closely related to industrialization than is robotics research. Table 2. The number of articles on computer vision by affiliation
  15. 15. Characteristic institutions in China • Concentrating especially on computer vision, we digitally illustrate the international/inter- institutional mobility of graduate students relating to five major Chinese national research universities. • All of the following are representative universities sending their holders of bachelor’s degrees to other universities for graduate studies: 1. Tsinghua University, 2. the University of Science and Technology of China, 3. Zhejiang University, 4. Peking University, and 5. Xi’an Jiaotong University.
  16. 16. Appendix: Detected researchers as sorted by degree Doctor Master Bachelor Tsinghua University
  17. 17. 1. Tsinghua University • Alumni from Tsinghua University provide significant input at other research universities. Many bachelor’s degree holders from Tsinghua University pursued master’s degrees at overseas institutions, • although the percentage of students who enrolled in the graduate school of that same university is also very high. • Furthermore, bachelor’s degree holders from Tsinghua University earned doctoral degrees mainly from research universities in the United States. Figure. 1 Trajectories of 61 authors who earned bachelor’s degrees from Tsinghua University, as obtained from biographical notes with their journal articles on computer vision. The arrow thickness indicates the number of students who moved between institutions.+ A typical university that provides students to research universities in the United States.
  18. 18. 2. University of Science and Technology of China • Many of the authors entered master’s and doctoral programs in the United States. • Even though a high percentage of authors holding bachelor’s degrees from the University of Science and Technology of China also enrolled in the graduate school of that same university, many others earned their doctoral degrees from universities in the United States. Figure. 2 Trajectories of 38 authors who earned bachelor’s degrees from the University of Science and Technology of China, as obtained from the biographical notes with their journal articles on computer vision. The arrow thickness indicates the number of students who moved between institutions. A typical university that provides students to research universities in the United States.
  19. 19. 3. Zhejiang University • Alumni from Zhejiang University provide significant input all over the world, not only at research universities but also at research institutions. Figure. 3 Trajectories of 21 authors who earned bachelor’s degrees from the University of Science and Technology of China, as obtained from biographical notes with their published journal articles on computer vision. The arrow thickness indicates the number of students who moved between institutions.
  20. 20. 4. Peking University • Many of these authors entered master’s and doctoral programs in the United States. Even though a high percentage of authors holding bachelor’s degrees from Peking University also enrolled in the graduate school of that same university, many earned their doctoral degrees from universities in the United States. Figure. 4 Trajectories of 20 authors who earned bachelor’s degrees from Peking University, as obtained from biographical notes with their published journal articles on computer vision. The arrow thickness indicates the number of students who moved between institutions. A typical university that provides students to research universities in the United States.
  21. 21. 5. Xi’an Jiaotong University • Many of the authors entered master’s and doctoral programs in the United States. Even though a high percentage of authors holding bachelor’s degrees from Xi’an Jiaotong University also enrolled in the graduate school of that same university, many others earned their doctoral degrees from universities in the United States. A typical university that provides students to research universities in the United States. Figure. 5 Trajectories of 17 authors who earned bachelor’s degrees from Xi’an Jiaotong University, as obtained from biographical notes with their journal articles on computer vision. The arrow thickness indicates the number of students who moved between institutions.
  22. 22. Conclusion • Complementary relationships between the top-ranked research universities and the exporting national research universities such as Tsinghua University etc. • are concealed behind the university rankings.
  23. 23. And… Discussion • For further insights to our study, • your valuable comments are greatly appreciated!
  24. 24. 清听感谢 • Our research materials are also available at • Official report (in Japanese) • 研究者国際流動性の論文著者情報に基づく定量分析 -ロボティクス、コ ンピュータビジョン及び電子デバイス領域を対象として- • http://hdl.handle.net/11035/932 • Open Access Article • An empirical study of graduate student mobility underpinning research universities • Higher Education • July 2013, Volume 66, Issue 1, pp 17-37, • http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10734-012-9586-4

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