The Nicaraguan Revolution
1978-1979
By: Kera & [Poké] Scawticus
Before the Revolution
o Nicaraguan was under the Dictators...
Prolonged People’s War
o This idea was to take after the Cuban style of fighting.
o They dared the military acts by having...
The new government
o Led by a five member council
o Headed by Sandinista military commander Daniel Ortega Saavedra.
o This...
o If the hostages in Iran were not released then carter would surely loose the election.
o Reagan and his team made a deal...
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The Nicaraguan Revolution

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The Nicaraguan Revolution

  1. 1. The Nicaraguan Revolution 1978-1979 By: Kera & [Poké] Scawticus Before the Revolution o Nicaraguan was under the Dictatorship of Somoza family (1936-1979) o The Somoza family was able to stay in power because they had control of the National Guard (their military and police force combined) o Also received power form the U.S because they named a street in their capitol after Franklin D. Roosevelt, and for letting them launch the Bay of Pigs Invasion in Nicaraguan. o The Somoza family continued to grow in wealth while their country continued to live in poverty. o Anyone who rebelled against their rein was imprisoned or exiled. o Things grew worse when Anastasio Somoza Debayle became the president in 1967. o In 1972, Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the National Guard stole relief funds after an earthquake hit the capitol Manaqua. o 10,000 people were killed by the earthquake. o Angered by the results of the earthquake, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) decided that they needed a change in government. The FSLN (The Sandinistas) o Stands for the Sandinista National Liberation Front. o Founded in 1961 by university students and lead by Carlos Fonseca, Silvio Mayorga, and Tomás Borge o The group’s name came from General Augusto Sandino who led a guerrilla campaign against U.S. intervention from 1927-1933. o He was murdered by Somoza’s National Guard in 1934 o Was given encouragement from Fidel Castro because of the Bay of Pigs incident. Other protestants o 1970’s, many Nicaraguan’s have tried to get rid of the Somozas but fail. o The prominent business leaders and Catholic Church officials joined the criticism. o Political opposition was headed by Pedro Joaquin Chamorro (assassinated in 1978) who was the editor of the La Prensa, the nation’s largest newspaper. On to the Revolution!! o Pedro Joaquin Chamorro was assassinated in January. o The FSLN were inspired by the Cuban Revolution along with Sandino’s legacy. o The FSLN had three main tendencies:  Prolonged People’s War  Proletarian Tendency  Terceristas
  2. 2. Prolonged People’s War o This idea was to take after the Cuban style of fighting. o They dared the military acts by having bands of guerrillas. o These bands of guerrillas were to help build popular support in the counrtyside. Proletarian Tendency o Tendency to use the poor and the working class to help in the war. o 60% of the population lived in the cities o 20% of the population was the working class. o It was decided that the working class would be the decisive factor in the revolutionary change. Terceristas o Said that they armed struggled should be linked to a mass movement. o They wanted this movement to bring together the workers, the poor and the sections of the bourgeoisie. o The revolution turned out to happen almost the way that the Terceristas had planned. After Pedro Joaquin Chamorro was killed…. o Many riots and outbursts began to happen. o The whole nation was on strike. o In August, Edén Pastora known as Commandante Zero led a group that took Managua’s National Palace under hostage. Closer to the end o May 1979- fighting broke out when the Sandinista said they were calling for a nationwide rebellion. o The National Guard could not handle it. Rebels took over cities such as Leon, Masaya and Manaqua. o The National Guard bombed neighborhoods where Sandinista people lived. Organization of American States o This organization called for Somoza to resign. o They went behind the United States because the US wanted to send peacekeeping troops to Nicaragua. o The US still wanted to keep parts of the National Guard but this effort failed. o Since most of Nicaragua was taken over by Sandinistas, Somoza fled the country into exile. o July 19th , Sandinista marched into Managua and took over the country.
  3. 3. The new government o Led by a five member council o Headed by Sandinista military commander Daniel Ortega Saavedra. o This counsel also included two other Sandinista members and two non Sandinista members, Alfonso Robelo Callejas and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro(widow of slain newspaper editor.) o A council of state was made. o Soon, it was seen that the Sandinistas had all the power. o Robelo and Violeta left the junta and the council. o The Sandinista government had problems since they were $1.6 billion in debt. o The Sandinistas did their best but agriculture declined in the 1980s. o Established literacy programs. o Death rates went down. Foreign countries o Many countries such as Cuba, Union of the Soviet Socialists Republic, Western and Eastern Europe. o US was considered an enemy because of their help to Somoza. o US began to support Contras. (counterrevolutionaries) Contras o US gave $300 million to their aid o In 1984, there was an election which made the Sandinista government more official. o Daniel Ortega became president. o Still there were over 10,000 contras. o Oscar Arias Sánchez, in 1987, helped to make peace between the Sandinistas and El Savador. This led to peace between the FSLN and the contras In the end o USSR had to pull away from Sandinistas o Thanks to Bush and the Iran-Contra scandals, the US was more willing to work to find a solution. o FSLN was defeated, Sandinistas changed political roles. o The country still suffered. Iran Contra o 1980-presidential election- Carter and Reagan o Carter was in the lead but his popularity was going to be the cause of his demise.
  4. 4. o If the hostages in Iran were not released then carter would surely loose the election. o Reagan and his team made a deal with Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran. o The deal was that Reagan would provide Iran with much needed weapons, even though it was against the law declared by congress. o In trade, Iran would not release the hostages yet. o Carter’s popularity dropped and he lost the election. o The hostages were released at noon on January 21, 1980. The day that Reagan was inaugurated. o Reagan denied that he sold weapons to terrorist contras. o Two months after election, Reagan tries to overthrow Sandista government which Carter supported. o Aid was soon cut off to the contras because they were only killing innocent Nicaraguans. o At the end of Reagan’s presidency, the Sandinistas still survived. o Bush and his administration gave 9 million to the 1990 election campaign of Violetta Chamorro. o Violetta and 14 other parties defeated Daniel Ortega’s Sandinista Party. This brought an end to the war.

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