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Airport capacity and_delay


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Airport capacity and_delay

  1. 1. 2008 Airport capacity and delay- Airport Planning & Management As air traffic levels continue to grow over time, additional demands placed upon the national airspace system will strain the system’s airport capacity. The key to keeping pace with future demand is by planning ahead, and to help with that planning that looks over the horizon at the capacity challenges ahead. Nabil Diab Everglades University, Florida, USA 2008 1
  2. 2. ASC640- Airport Planning & Management- Supervisor: Prof. Mark Cervasio Airport capacity and delayCapacity refers to the ability of an airport to handle a given volume or magnitude of traffic(demand) within a specified time period. Four distinct elements in a capacity analysis:  Airspace  Airfield  Terminal  Ground accessAirport and Airway Safety and Capacity Enhancement Act of 1987 (ACEA) gave highestpriority for AIP funding to capacity-enhancing project.FAA now stipulates that AIP grants can only be issued for capacity enhancement if the airportcertifies that all of its elements can handle the increased traffic.Airfield Capacity Airfield capacity is the rate at which aircraft movements on the runway/taxiway system result in a given level of delay defined by:  Throughput capacity The rate at which aircraft can operate at the airfield without regard to any delay  Practical capacity Subjective value judgment about how much delay is tolerable. Acceptable level of delay : A judgment that recognizes that some delays are: 2
  3. 3. ASC640- Airport Planning & Management- Supervisor: Prof. Mark Cervasio o Unavoidable o Too expensive to eliminate o Few aircraft will encounter a higher level than normal o Number of operations that can be expressed in terms of the maximum acceptable rate incurring an average delay. o An airport is severely congested when average delay exceeds 9 minutes. o Practical capacity is always less than throughput capacity. Practical hourly capacity (PHOCAP) Total combined capacity measure of runway, taxiway, and gate areas. Practical annual capacity (PANCAP) Level of operation that results in not more than four minutes average delay per aircraft in a normal peak two-hour operating period. Airport acceptance rate (AAR) Used by airport radar traffic control centers to calculate the desired interval between successive arriving aircraft.FAA measures of delay o Air Traffic Operations Management System (ATOMS) Records aircraft delayed by more than 15 minutes. Includes cause: Weather 3
  4. 4. ASC640- Airport Planning & Management- Supervisor: Prof. Mark Cervasio Terminal volume Center volume Closed runways or taxiways National Airspace System equipment interruptions o Airline Service Quality Performance (ASQP) Collected from airlines with 1% or more of total domestic scheduled passenger revenue, includes all delays, by phase of flight.Managing capacity Factors for managing capacity: o Airfield characteristics Most critical determinant is runway configuration o Airspace characteristics and air traffic control Mile-in trail or minute-in-trail restrictions Least disruptive traffic management initiatives, however, least accurate. Traffic management systems  Software that assists the management of a smooth flow of aircraft to and from airports with minimum delay  Metering aims to match the arrival of aircraft to the ability of the airport to handle the volume  Meteorological conditions  Demand characteristics Spacing standards between aircraft on take-off 4
  5. 5. ASC640- Airport Planning & Management- Supervisor: Prof. Mark Cervasio ATC required to double departure times from 60 s to 120 s after a heavy jetManaging demand Promote more effective or economically efficient use of existing facilities rather than adding true capacity o Administrative management: Limiting or diverting traffic reduces the need for capital improvements at airports with capacity problems Includes restricting access by setting quotas on enplanements or the number and type of operations Slots A block of time allocated to an airport user to perform an aircraft operation Term was originally used to identify the authority of an aircraft to conduct an IFR operation at a high density airport Slots are controlled by FAA, but can be bought, sold, leased, or transferred within FAA limitations and approval Purpose is to alleviate congestion at high demand or high density airports Slot auctions allow peak-hour access only to those users willing to pay a market-determined price Slots represent one of the most significant barriers to entry in the airline business 5
  6. 6. ASC640- Airport Planning & Management- Supervisor: Prof. Mark Cervasio The high density rule governing slots was implemented in 1969 and formalized in FAR Part 93 Diversion of traffic Moves traffic (primarily general aviation) to reliever airports Reduces delay by allowing for greater uniformity of aircraft mix at an airport Balances the use of aircraft among several metropolitan air carrier airports Rehubbing: Using transfer hubs to redistribute operations to less busy airports Economic management Aviation economists favor allocating airport access by demand management, which relies on a pricing mechanism Most commonly favored economic management methods of reducing delay: Differential pricing Three NYC metropolitan airports reduced congestion by applying a peak hour surcharge Slot management Slot Block of time allocated to an aircraft to perform an airport operation One of the most significant barriers of entry in the airline business High density rule 6
  7. 7. ASC640- Airport Planning & Management- Supervisor: Prof. Mark Cervasio Implemented in 1969 Formalized under FAR Part 93 Originally only applied to IFR, which allowed airlines to operate more aircraft under VMC When weather deteriorates to IMC, airlines were required to reroute or cancel flights that exceeded capacity limit FAA recalls any slot not used 80% of the time over two months Allocations Administrative determinations Negotiations among airlines Reservation system Allocate GA and charter slots on a first come, first serve basis Auctions Advocates argue airport access should be treated as a scarce resource and priced accordingly Allow peak-hour access at a market-determined price FAA has modified FAR Part 93 to incorporate special rules that allow slots to be purchased, sold, traded, or leased by any partyTechnological and weather solutions Value of technology is measured by its ability to achieve: 7
  8. 8. ASC640- Airport Planning & Management- Supervisor: Prof. Mark Cervasio Increased capacity Higher efficiency or throughput Greater safety Improved reliability Greater accuracy Lower cost Greater convenience National Airspace Architecture Global Positioning System (GPS) Intended to be the sole means of future navigation and landing guidance Coupled with the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) Decision Support System (DSS) architecture For air traffic controllers and traffic management coordinators Provides more functions, information, upgraded displays, and better data exchange Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS) Replacing TRACON equipment Supports current radar, traffic and weather advisory, and navigational assistance services Operational and Supportability Implementation System (OASIS) Commercial-based DSS 8
  9. 9. ASC640- Airport Planning & Management- Supervisor: Prof. Mark Cervasio Incorporates functions currently provided by the graphic weather display, flight service data processing equipment, aviation weather processor, and direct user access terminal service Low Level Wind shear Alert System (LLWAS) Doppler radars positioned at different locations on and around an airport Measure wind velocity and direction Automated Surface Observation Stations (ASOS) Similar to Automated Weather Observation Systems (AWOS) Some aviation users have criticized ASOS, because: It cannot replicate the observations of distant phenomena, such as thunderstorms It doesn’t provide a trend analysis of whether conditions are improving or deteriorating Sometimes the information transmitted is in error 9