Katharina Reiss (Katharina Reiß) 1923German linguist and translation scholar.
Katharina ReissShe is a defender of the skopos theory.Katharina Reisss approach considers the text ratherthan the word or the sentence as the translation unitand hence the level at which equivalence is to besought. Reisss text typology is: informative,expressive, operative and the audio medial
Skopos TheorySkopos theory focuses on translation as an activitywith an aim or purpose, and on the intendedaddressee or audience of the translation. To translatemeans to produce a target text in a target setting fora target purpose and target addressees in targetcircumstances
Reisss text typology The informative‘text where the content is the main focus. These textsdo plain communication of facts, information,knowledge, opinions etc. The logical or referentialdimension of language is what is involved.
Reisss text typology The expressive textwhere the focus is on creative composition andaesthetics. Both the author (the sender) and themessage are what are foregrounded. Imaginativecreative literature exemplifies these texts.
Reisss text typology The operative textwhere the focus is appellative by which what is meantis that the text appeals to the reader to act in a certainway, persuading, dissuading, requesting, and cajolinghim. The form of language is dialogic.
Reisss text typology The audio medial textwhere the focus is on visual and audio representations.The audio medial parts supplement the other three texttypes with visual images and music etc.
ReferencesReiss, K. (1981/2000) Type, kind and individuality oftext: decision making in translation, translated by S.Kitron in L. Venuti (ed) (2000), pp. 160-71.Vermeer, H. (1989/2000) Skopos and commission intranslational action, in L. Venuti (ed.) (2000),pp. 221-32.