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Palawan Biodiversity Status & MMPL Valuation Initial Results 22 April 2008


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Philippine Biodiversity is made up of Indo-Malayan (Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asian islands) elements indicative of the Sunda Islands (ex. Borneo, Sumatra and Java) which is typical for Palawan. The Papua-Australian (Sulawesi, New Guinea to Australia) elements can be found in much of the eastern Philippines and the northern islands have similar species indicative of the Palearctic mainland (Europe, Russia to North Asia).

Many forms have become unique and distinctively Filipino in origin; these are the endemics. The Philippines is the world’s 2nd largest archipelago. It is comprised of more than 7,000 islands. Despite the country’s relatively small size, it is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world in terms of unique terrestrial and marine plant and animal species. More than 20,000 species of plant and animals are found nowhere else on earth. As such, the Philippines has also oftentimes been described as Galapagos times ten.

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Palawan Biodiversity Status & MMPL Valuation Initial Results 22 April 2008

  1. 1. “ Ang 50-taong gulang na puno ay nagkakahalaga ng $193,250” (approx Php 9M) (Prof TM Das of Univ. of Calcutta) $62,000 halaga ng oxygen, air pollution control and soil pollution control (Php 3M) $37,500 tubig (P1.8M) $31,250 pampataba ng lupa (P1.5M) $31,200 recycles (P1.5M) $31,250 tirahan/habitat (P1.5M)
  2. 2. Ang Kasalukuyang Kalagayan ng mga Likas Yaman ng Palawan Earth Day Forum Puerto Princesa City April 22, 2008
  3. 3. Sustainable development needs BIODIVERSITY <ul><li>Mahalaga sa araw-araw na pamumuhay </li></ul><ul><li>(essential to peoples daily lives and we all depend on biodiversity) </li></ul><ul><li>Mahalaga para sa mga pagpipiliang gamit sa hinaharap </li></ul><ul><li>(necessary to conserve development potentials and future options of use) </li></ul><ul><li>Bahagi ng kultura </li></ul><ul><li>(part of our cultural identity: knowledge, aesthetics, values) </li></ul><ul><li>Nagbibigay ng mga serbisyong mula sa ekosistema </li></ul><ul><li>(provides ecosystem services) </li></ul>
  4. 5. Palawan Biological Data 26 species of AMPHIBIANS (25% ay sa Pilipinas lamang, at karamihan ay makikita sa Palawan) 69 species of REPTILES (29% ay sa Pilipinas lamang) 279 species of BIRDS (10% sa Pilipinas lamang); 34% of bird species are migratory, making the region a vital flyway for migratory birds 58 species of TERRESTRIAL MAMMALS , 19 or 33% sa Pilipinas lamang, 16 ay sa Palawan lamang 18 species of FRESHWATER FISH (50% ay sa Palawan lamang)
  5. 6. Palawan Biological Data <ul><li>31 species of mangroves in Palawan (90% of the known mangrove species in the country) </li></ul><ul><li>44,500 hectares of mangrove forests in Palawan (40% of the remaining mangroves in the country) </li></ul><ul><li>13 species of seagrass recorded in Palawan (81% of the known seagrass species in the country) </li></ul><ul><li>379 species of corals (82% of the total coral species recorded in the entire country) </li></ul><ul><li>89% of total reef fish recorded in the Phils. is found in the corridor </li></ul><ul><li>4 of the 5 marine turtles are found in Palawan </li></ul><ul><li>15 of the 25 recorded marine mammals are reported from Palawan </li></ul>
  6. 7. New Discoveries and Re-Discoveries Possible new species a. Fauna: a shrew, Crocidura sp. observed to be restricted on the high slopes (1300-1900 masl); b. Flora: at least 8 undescribed species of plants. One of the potentially new species of plants discovered belongs to the genus Coelogyne, one of the most striking orchid groups in the country. New records a. Fauna i. 1 new Philippine record (Aves: Erythrura prasina: pintailed-parrot finch ii. 2 new Palawan records (Aves: Erythrura hyperythra: tawny-breasted parrot finch; Mammalia: Saccolaimus saccolaimus: sheath-tailed bat) b. Flora. at least 5 species that are new records for Palawan Rediscovery : Palawanomys furvus
  7. 8. Palawan Biological Data <ul><li>AAA </li></ul><ul><li>BBB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CCC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul></ul>KBA Name Trigger Species CR EN VU RR El Nido – Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area 1 2 11 16 Malampaya Sound Protected Landscape and Seascape 2 2 10 18 Lake Manguao 1 1 13 20 San Vicente-Taytay-Roxas Forest 2 1 11 10 Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park 2 2 12 19 Cleopatra's Needle 1 1 3 1 Victoria and Anepahan Ranges 1 4 15 22 Mt Mantalingahan 2 3 13 20
  8. 9. Palawan Biological Data KBA Name Trigger Species CR EN VU RR Calauit Island 1 2 10 22 Busuanga Island 1 1 9 37 Culion Island 1 1 8 33 Coron Island 1 0 6 4 Dumaran-Araceli 2 2 5 5 Rasa Island Wildlife Sanctuary 1 2 3 0 Ursula Island 0 0 3 0 Balabac Island 1 2 10 39 Tubbataha Reef Natural Park 1 1 1 0
  9. 10. <ul><li>Forest Destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture (slash and burn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuelwood gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depletion of marine fishery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mangrove destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal and illegal fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mining and quarrying </li></ul><ul><li>Roads and other large infrastructure development </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism development </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife hunting </li></ul>Major Biodiversity Threats
  10. 11. Land Use Changes in a Nickel Mining Area Threats Assessment
  11. 12. Threats Assessment geophysical access costs demography socio- economic econometric analysis <ul><li>LIKELIHOOD OF </li></ul><ul><li>DEFORESTATION </li></ul><ul><li>define relationships among variables </li></ul><ul><li>identify predictors and determine relative influences </li></ul>multi- criteria evaluation <ul><li>PROBABILITY MAPPING </li></ul><ul><li>convert variables to standard scale </li></ul><ul><li>integrate factors </li></ul>deforestation probability map 1998 forest cover risk by forest type risk levels Risk of Forest Habitat Loss Analysis Potential impacts on biodiversity! Source: CI/Gwong & Castrence, 2004
  12. 13. Mga Halaga ng Samu’t Saring Buhay sa Mt. Mantalingahan Protected Landscape (MMPL) Earth Day Forum Puerto Princesa City April 22, 2008
  13. 14. Mt. Mantalingahan Protected Landscape: Nasaan at ano ito? <ul><li>Rizal, Brooke’s Point, Quezon, Bataraza, Sofronio Espanola </li></ul><ul><li>panukalang protected area </li></ul><ul><li>126,348 ektarya </li></ul>
  14. 15. Mt. Mantalingahan Protected Landscape Anu-ano ang mga nagawa na? Legal Requirements 1 Compilation of maps & technical descriptions 2 Initial screening 3 Public notifications 4 Initial consultation 5 Census & registration of PA occupants 6 Resource profiling 7 Initial Protected Area Plan 8 Public hearings 9 Regional review & recommendations 10 National review & recommendations 11 Presidential Proclamation 12 Congressional action 13 Demarcation
  15. 16. TUBIG NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS (NTFP) MATABANG LUPA SARIWANG HANGIN SAMU’T SARING BUHAY MINA Mt. Mantalingahan Protected Landscape: Anu-ano ang mga likas-yaman at gamit?
  16. 17. Mt. Mantalingahan Protected Landscape Mga Watersheds: <ul><li>2 micro watersheds (<1000 ha) </li></ul><ul><li>21 small watersheds (1000 to 10K ha) </li></ul><ul><li>10 medium watersheds (10K to 50K ha: Pulot, Tigaplan, Mambalot-Pilantropia, Iwahig, Ilog, Malambunga, Iraan , Culasian, Lamikan, Panitian ) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Total Economic Value of a Tropical Forest (Adapted from Bann 1997) Use Values Non-Use Direct Indirect Option Sustainable timber Watershed protection Future direct and indirect uses Existence value NTFPs Nutrient cycling Cultural heritage Recreation and tourism Air pollution reduction Biodiversity Medicine Micro-climatic functions Plant genetics Carbon storage Education Biodiversity Human habitat
  18. 19. Mga Halaga/Presyo ng mga Likas Yaman sa MMPL <ul><li>Total Economic Value </li></ul><ul><li>TEV = UV + NUV </li></ul><ul><li>Where : </li></ul><ul><li>UV = use value </li></ul><ul><li>NUV = non-use value </li></ul><ul><li>UV = direct use value + indirect use value + option value </li></ul><ul><li>NUV = bequest value + existence value </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Use Values </li></ul><ul><li>Direktang Gamit </li></ul><ul><li>Timber </li></ul><ul><li>NTFPs </li></ul><ul><li>Use of land for farming/ agroforestry </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Hindi Direktang Gamit </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>Soil conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul>
  19. 20. Summary of the economic values of Mt. Mantalingahan Range Use Valuation Approach Present Value (Php) Timber Opportunity cost xx,445,296,692 IP’s use Market prices x,772,266,950 Water Resource charge xx,091,500,000 Carbon stock Benefits transfer xx,788,327,735 Soil conservation Replacement cost x,861,361,000 Watershed and biodiversity functions Contingent valuation method xxx,122,641 Protection of marine biodiversity Benefits transfer xx,440,784,450 Total (excluding timber) XXX,340,362,776
  20. 21. Pangalagaan at pahalagahan ang kalikasan “ Only when the last tree has died, the last river has been poisoned and the last fish has been caught, only then will man realize that money cannot be eaten ” --- from a native Indian