Overview of Impacts of Mining I t f Mi i to Biodiversity Michael J. Edrial J Conservation Science and Research DepartmentHaribon Foundation for Conservation of Natural Resources Inc.
Biodiversity (Biological Diversity) Variety of all life forms on earth
Philippines-52,000 species with 13,500 species of plants comprising 5percent of the world s total flora and about 68 percent of the world’scountry’s species ranking in the top ten in the world.
Cont.- considered as the most megadiverse country in terms of landdensity and density in flora and fauna. Unfortunately, the speciesd it dd it i fl df U f t t l th iin the Philippines are considered among the most threatened inthe world considered as the hottest of hotspots or the mostseverely threatened of the megadiverse countries. :Internet ture soure
Decline of forest cover is alarming. Only 3-6% of the originalprimary forest remains (around 1M hectares)! The smallestfigure of all the countries in the region (except Singapore)1990s Late 1980s
South Cotabato - food basket of Mindanao with agricultureas primary source of development/income (e.g. rice, corn,coconut, pineapple, banana) t i l b ) N
Mount Matutum ProtectedLandscape 22 Restricted-range species((Mindanao Endemic species) p )13 Globally threatened birdspecies(9 Threatened Restricted-rangespecies or MindanaoThreatened Endemic species)Th t dE d i i ) With one (1) bird species Endemic or found only in Mt. Matutum and Busa- Snowy-Browed Snowy Browed Flycatcher Ficedula hyperythra matutumensis
Philippine Eagle(Philippine National Bird)- Largest eagle in the world- among the 160 globally mostCritically Endangered BirdSpecies in the world (fromabout 10,000 bird species)- estimated 250 individuals left- habitat range: 50-100 km2 perppair- threatened due to habitatdestruction and hunting
ImpactsMining has the potentialto affect biodiversitythroughout the life cycle g yof a project, both directly(at the mine site) andindirectly (across a widerlandscape).
Direct impacts • Water loss and pollution • Air pollution • Species and Habitat loss • Oth Other services
Water loss and pollution ll ti• Altered hydrological andhydrogeological regimes (e.g.decrease of water level)• Increased heavy metals, acidity orpollution• Increased turbidity (i.e.suspended solids)• Risk of groundwatercontamination
Species and Habitat p loss• Loss of ecosystems, habitats and functions• Loss of endemic and/or threatened species• Loss of important plant p p species with potential to cure other known illness/disease (e.g. AIDS, cancer)
Impacts on Service values S i l• Loss of access to timber andNTFPs (e.g. medicinal plants,fuelwood, etc.)• Loss of access to grazing forlivestock•IImpaired ecosystem services i d t i(e.g. soil and flood protection,watershed protection, climate protectionmodification)
Overlaps with critical watershed areas that will affectenvironmental landscape and biodiversity ( p y (risk ofpollution, siltation, flashfloods and landslides) N N 6 25’ 30” to 6 37’ E 124 59’ to 125 10’
N 6 25’ 30” to 6 37’ N E 124 59’ to 125 10’ t 10’c“Changes of erosion to occur in the target areas are HIGH Changestaking into consideration rolling to rugged topography”. - Annual environment Work Program Jan.-Dec. 2008
Mining Impact to 3 Major River System(directly affecting 3 provinces in the region: South Cotabato, SultanKudarat and Davao del Sur - 1.2M population Balangi River ( (flows northwest to Mindanao river then to the Moro Gulf) Padada river (flows eastward to Davao Gulf Buayan River System (drains to Saranggani Bay to the Southeast)
Issue: There is a great Need for conservation-Deforestation decreases groundwater level Deforestation level.Will affect around 20,000 hectares of farmlandsof 3 provinces.Issue: Deforestation increases poverty - as aI D f t ti i tnumber of people directly dependent on forestresources for food and livelihood livelihood.
Issue: Rehabilitation and restoration activities to atleast5000 hectares of affected area will need around 55-88million trees at the cost of 4-6 billion pesos for wildlingsaloneIssue: Irreversible and permanent damage to biodiversitywith local extinctions possible.
“Not only have the oil, gas and mining industriesnot helped the poorest in developing countries countries,they have often made them worse off. Scores ofrecent academic studies and many of bank’sown studies confirmed our fi di t di fi d findings th t thatcountries which rely primarily on extractiveindustries tend to have higher levels of poverty,child morbidity and mortality, civil war,corruption and totalitarianism than those withmore di diversified economies.” ifi d i ”Dr.Dr Emil Salim World Bank Extractive Industries Salim,Review 2004 (EIR). UK Financial Times on 16June 2004.