Any business and economic applications of forecasting involve time series data. Re-gression models can be fit to monthly, quarterly, or yearly data using the techniques de-scribed in previous chapters. However, because data collected over time tend to exhibit trends, seasonal patterns, and so forth, observations in different time periods are re¬lated or autocorrelated. That is, for time series data, the sample of observations cannot be regarded as a random sample. Problems of interpretation can arise when standard regression methods are applied to observations that are related to one another over time. Fitting regression models to time series data must be done with considerable care.