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Organizations and symbols


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Organizations and symbols

  1. 1. Organizations Certain organizations are so well known that they arerecognized by their initials and may be so identified in first as well as subsequent references. These include: CIA, FBI, GOP, NASA and NATO. Most initials of three or more letters ARE NOT punctuated. Two initials in most cases ARE punctuated.
  2. 2. Organizations President Obama ordered the FBI and CIA to cooperate with NATO officials in preventing terrorism.  The names of other organizations that are not as well known should be spelled out in first references, but the organization’s initials may be used subsequently.  The Nevada Transit Authority operates trains throughout the west. There are plans to expand the NTA throughout California and Texas.
  3. 3.  Some organizations use as part of the official names words like “company” “corporation” “incorporated” or “limited.”  Abbreviate these words even if the official name spells out the words as part of its official title.  Do you not use a common to separate these words from the preceding words of the title.  Jane owns stock in the Coca-Cola Co.  Rhonda has driven several General Motors Corp. vehicles.  Tru-Ink Inc. manufacturers fillers for ballpoint pens.  Alonzo bought his coat from a men’s store name Kool Kat Ltd.
  4. 4. Periods, Initials and Abbreviations Although there are few exceptions (of course!), the general rule of thumb is to use periods with two initials but not use periods for three or more initials. Maybe of these abbreviations are so common that they have become words, like FBI, U.S. and a.m.  His relative joined the U.S. Marine Corps. (Note: U.S. is abbreviated as an adjective. It is spelled out when used as a noun.)  Jose wants to become a citizen of the United States.  The U.N. General Assembly convenes next week.  I understand that NATO headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium.  Members of the NAACP convene in Orlando tomorrow.
  5. 5. Periods, Initials and Abbreviations Example:  Amos has a B.A. degree in sociology from the University of Center Florida, an M.A. degree in criminology from the University of Georgia and a Ph.D. degree in political science from Harvard University.  Melton Purvia, Ed.D., will teach in Jacksonville.  (Look up academic titles in the AP Stylebook.)
  6. 6. Periods, Initials and Abbreviations The abbreviation “mph” for miles per hour is OK on first and subsequent references. The same applies for “mm” for millimeter as it relates to film and to weapons. However, “miles per gallon” should be spelled out in first reference. Second and subsequent can be “mpg.” The postal term c.o.d. is punctuated because without the periods it spells cod, a type of fish. Use c.o.d. is acceptable on all references to cash on delivery. Another interesting exception is the abbreviation for the Associated Press, which is AP – without punctuation!
  7. 7. Periods, Initials and Abbreviations Example:  The winds are increasing from 65 to 80 mph, and this suggests that a hurricane is on the way.  We shot the family picnic on 8 mm film.  Leroy’s Buick gets 12 miles per gallon when he drives the speed limit. He got better mpg results when he owned a Volkswagen.  Look up miles per hour, miles per gallon, millimeter, c.o.d and Associated Press in the AP Stylebook.
  8. 8. Radio and TV Radio and television stations in the United States receive their call letters from the Federal Communications Commission. A few of the older stations maintain an identification of three call letters, but most have four call letters. Broadcast stations east of the Mississippi River have call letters beginning with “W” except for KDKA in Pittsburgh. Stations west of the Mississippi have call letters beginning with “K.” Call letters are always written in capital letters. Periods are never placed within the call letters.  One of the oldest radio stations is WSB in Atlanta.  We watch football games in WFLA-TV in Tampa.  A flagship station for the Columbia Broadcasting System is KCBS in Los Angeles.  Look up broadcast, call letters, radio station and television stations in the AP Stylebook.
  9. 9. Fort, Mount, Saint When proper names of cities, military bases and mountains contain either “fort” “mount,” then “fort” and “mount” are spelled out. When proper names of cities, military bases and mountains contain “saint” as part of the title, abbreviate “saint.”  Her military career ended at Fort Jackson, S.C.  His cousins live in Fort Pierce, Fla.  There is a Native American site called Fort Mountain, which is located in the Georgia highlands.  The wedding occurred in St. Patrick’s Cathedral.  You can buy lots of beer in St. Louis.  Look up “fort” “mount” “saint” in the AP Stylebook.
  10. 10. Christmas and Christmas Day Do not use the abbreviation Xmas or any other form.  See Christmas and Christmas Day in the AP Stylebook - always capitalized and are spelled out.
  11. 11. Symbols Ampersand – the ampersand symbol has certain limited uses. If it is part of a organization’s formal name, then & is used. However, & is NOT ACCEPTABLE as a substitute for the word “and.”  My friend attends Florida A & M University.  Abercrombie & Fitch is a high-priced men’s clothing store.  Ham and eggs constitute a hearty breakfast.  A scrumptious Midwestern dish is homemade noodles heaped on top of homemade mashed potatoes and gravy.  See ampersand in the AP Stylebook.
  12. 12. Cent Do not use the symbol for “cent.” Spell out “cent” or “cents” for any amount of money that is less than a dollar.  That plastic pocket comb cost me 59 cents.  You will need 1 cent to have the correct total.  The library fine for a late book is 50 cents.
  13. 13. Dollar Use the “$” symbol and Arabic figures to indicate money amounts of $1 or more. The word “dollars” is used only in casual reference or for amounts without a figure.  College tuition this fall is $3,200.  The lottery paid $1.2 million last week.  The Dollar Store has many bargains.  I need to borrow a few dollars from you until Saturday.  Look up “cents’ and “dollars” in the AP Stylebook.
  14. 14. Percent Do not use the “%” sign. Always spell it out: percent. The amount of the percent, whether more or less than 1, is always in Arabic figures.  My bank account earns 4.5 percent interest.  Approximately 35 percent of all students cheat on the final test.  Housing sales fell .50 percent during April.