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Cartilage & joints


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Lectures for Faculty of Nursing by Dr. Noura El Tahawy

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Cartilage & joints

  1. 1. Cartilage & Joints By Dr. Noura El Tahawy
  2. 2. Cartilage Types -Hyaline cartilage -Yellow Elastic cartilage -White fibrocartilage
  3. 3. 1) Hyaline cartilage Articular cartilage
  4. 4. 1) Hyaline cartilage Laryngeal cartilages
  5. 5. 1) Hyaline cartilage Costal Cartilages
  6. 6. 2) White fibrocartilage Intervertebral Disc
  7. 7. 2) Yellow elastic fibrocartilage: Ear Pinna
  8. 8. Joints By DR. Noura El Tahawy
  9. 9. Definition of Joint A joint is the location at which two or more bones articulate or make contact. Some joints like those of the skull are fixed and have no movement, some like those of the vertebrae can move slightly and some are freely moveable like the joints of the limbs.
  10. 10. Classification of joints 1. Fibrous joints. 2. Cartilaginous joints. 3. Synovial joints.
  11. 11. The three main types of joints
  12. 12. Fibrous joints Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing any movement. The bones of the skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints. The union of the spinous processes and vertebrae, joints between the teeth and maxilla and mandible are the examples of fibrous joints.
  13. 13. Fibrous joints
  14. 14. Cartilaginous joints Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. In this type of joint, there is a pad of fibro cartilage between the ends of bones which form joints, where only some movement is required. Joints at the pubic symphysis, joint between the manubrium sterni and body of the sternum and joints between the vertebral bodies are the examples of cartilaginous joint.
  15. 15. 2- Cartilagenous Joints 1) PRIMARY CARTILAGINOUS JOINT (synchondrosis) *It does not allow any movement * This type is characterized by having a plate of cartilage between the epiphysis & diaphysis of the same bone. It is not a true permanent joint, but it is a temporary plate of hyaline cartilage which disappears in adulthood by ossification. i.e. It is represented by the epiphysial plate of cartilage intervening between the epiphysis and diaphysis of long bones.
  16. 16. SECONDARY CARTILAGINOUS JOINT: Structure of Intervertebral disc
  18. 18. Synovial Joints
  19. 19. Characteristics of synovial joint 1. The capsule The joint is enclosed and surrounded by fibrous tissue. This keeps the bones together. The capsule is such, that, it protects the bones and joint from injury and at the same time allows free movement. 2. Articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage lines the bones which form the joint and which are in contact with each other. Hence, the articular surfaces are smooth. The hyaline cartilage also bears the weight of the body. It reduces friction of the joint.. 3. Synovial membrane lines the capsule, 4. Synovial fluid is secreted by the synovial membrane into the joint cavity. It provides nutrition to the structures within the joint cavity. 5. In addition to the capsule, the bones are also attached and held together by strong-tough ligaments made of dense connective tissue. These ligaments prevent dislocation during normal movement. 6. The articulating surfaces of adjacent bones are reciprocally shaped.
  20. 20. Diagram showing the main structures of the Synovial Joint Articular cartilage Synovial joint cavity Synovial membrane Synovial fluid Articular capsule Reinforcing ligaments Articular disc or minscus
  21. 21. The main movement of the synovial joints are --- flexion: bending forward. --- extension : means straightening or bending backward --- abduction :- moving away from the midline of the body . --- adduction :- moving towards the midline of the body . --- rotation :- moving round the long axis of bone . --- pronation :- turning the palm of the hand down . --- supination :- turning the palm of the hand up . --- circumulation :- combination of flexion , extension, abduction , adduction , --- inversion :- turning the sole of the foot inwards. --- eversion :- turning the sole of the foot outwards .
  22. 22. Main synovial joints of the Upper limb
  23. 23. Shoulder joint It is a ball and socket type of joint. The head of the humerus rotates within the glenoid cavity of the scapula. It is also known as humero-scapular joint.
  24. 24. Elbow joint This joint is formed by the lower end of the humerus with the upper ends of the ulna and the radius. It is a type of hinge joint.
  25. 25. Radio-ulnar joints – proximal (Superior) and distal (Inferior) joints The proximal radioulnar joint is formed by the rim of the head of radius rotating in the radial notch of the ulna and it has little movement. The distal joint is formed between the distal end of the radius and the head of the ulna. It is a pivot joint.
  26. 26. Wrist joint This joint is formed by the distal end of the radius and the proximal ends of the carpal (wrist) bones. It is a condyloid joint.
  27. 27. Joints of wrist and fingers These are joints between the carpal bones, between carpal and metacarpal bones and between the metacarpal bones and proximal phalanges and between the phalanges. Intercarpal and carpal – metacarpal joints are gliding joints. Metacarpophalangeal joints are condyloid joints and interphalangeal joints are hinge joints.
  28. 28. Coronal section through a metacarpophalangeal joint, a synovial joint. The .collateral ligaments are thickenings of the joint capsule
  29. 29. Joints of the Lower limb
  30. 30. Bones& Joints of the lower limb
  31. 31. Hip joint The head of the femur bone fits into the cup-shaped acetabulum of the hip bone. It is a ball and socket type of joint.
  32. 32. Knee joint It is formed by the two condyles of the femur with the condyles of the tibia and the posterior surface of the patella. It is a type of hinge joint.
  33. 33. Ankle joint This joint is formed by the distal end of the tibia and its medial malleolus, the distal end of the fibula and its lateral malleolus with the talus. It is a form of hinge joint.
  34. 34. Bones& Joints of the foot
  35. 35. Joints of the foot and toes Joints are formed between the tarsal bones, between the tarsal and the metatarsals, between the metatarsal bones and the proximal phalanges and between the phalanges. They are all gliding type of joints.
  36. 36. Joints of the Vertebral Column
  37. 37. Thanks You can download the lecture from: