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Presentation4.Ppt Suicide Amongst Colege Students Powerpoint
<ul><li>Stress amongst college students is affecting students at a high rate in the United States. According to the National College Health Association, depression and stress amongst young adults impair their psychosocial development and educational success. The leading cause of death in 15 – 24 year olds is depression. There has been a 5% increase in depression in adults each year and a 15 – 20% increase is estimated over a lifetime (Hass, Hendin, & Mann, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>College is a time to move into adulthood and this can be hard on some students cannot cope with the academic demands, financial stress and social strain can lead to cognitive resources can affect the immune system which can lead to depression (Seligman, 1977). </li></ul><ul><li>The paper will discuss the effects of stress and depression on college students along with the psychological, social, health, cognitive and suicide rates. The hypothesis is several things are attributed to stress copping with life’s challenges, academic acceptance, daily living, peer pressure, abuse, work, children and many other factors. Stress which includes suicide is a very interesting subject, because research has to look at all of the issues the students were dealing with in order to figure out why students were committing suicide. Does religion and morals have an effect on the decisions of these students to commit suicide? </li></ul>
Stress was used to deal with resisting a force, and prevent from harming an object or individual. The body goes through three stages when dealing with stress such as, alarm, resistance and exhaustion (Altunta ş , 2003; Tutar, 2004; U ğ urlu, 2007).The symptoms of stress were classified as physical, psychological, and behavioral by Artan, Rathus, and Shafer (Pehlivan, 2000). The hypothesis was that students with self-confidence feel they could control event faced their problems and do not avoid them. These students usually would not commit suicide (Durkheim, 1992; Partlak, 2003). Each occurs because of positive or negative actions result in death or attempted suicide (Durkheim, 1992; Oktik, Sezer, Bozyer, & Top, 2003). Many factors played a role in the study such as psychological test, parents, whether they committed suicide before, experience, loneliness and depression (Durkheim, 1992; Oktik, Sezer, Bozyer, & Top, 2003). The study was also used to find out how students could cope with stressors and the relationship levels of studying and their reduction of suicide. A study was conducted by (Cull and Gill, 1992), to measure the suicide probability amongst students by using the Suicide Probability Scale. The scale is used on adolescent and adults to measure if the person would committee suicide. The range was from 0-5 if a person scored higher that they were most likely to commit suicide.
<ul><li>Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>The college stress inventory is a 22 item instrument which is used in colleges to test for stress in college students. The answers will either be never or always to each question and the score is from 0 to 84. Higher scores would indicate that the stress levels are high, but lower scores would indicate wellbeing (Solberg, Hale, Villarreal & Kavanagh, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>One study included 350 students taking up nursing and health officer at the University of Mugla. They each were given a questionnaire which had 82 items, 16 related to stress and suicide, 30 for stress coping and 36 for probability to commit suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS </li></ul><ul><li>When the distribution of the scores obtained from the SCSS and SPS was examined, it was found that M = 47.55 for the SCSS and M = 68.78 for the SPS and the relationship between the two scales was found to be significantly negative (r = -0.170, p < 0.01) (Cull and Gill, 1992) .The hypothesis did not match the findings from the results of the research dealing with the relationship with stress and suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several ways of coping with stress it does not have to lead to death. So what are some positive things you can do to cope with stress as college students. Find things to do that are relaxing techniques such as yoga and meditation. Or you can seek counseling to cope with stress, because stress leads to other things. </li></ul><ul><li>Strayhorn (1988) has nine categories to cope with stress which are: </li></ul><ul><li>Trusting, closeness and relationship building. </li></ul><ul><li>Handling separation and independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with frustration and unfavorable events. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate good things feel pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>Handling joint decisions and interpersonal conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Working for delayed gratification. </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing playing </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive processing through words symbols and images. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive sensing of direction and purpose. </li></ul>
The Stayhorn model is used on seventh to twelfth graders as a model to cope with stress and prevent suicide and depression. The counselor incorporates the model and also the counselor has to consider using other strategies for stress recommended to the school board. Also psycho- education has to be considered and family has to be involved in the individual’s life. The counselor needs to have a positive impact on the student’s life (Boarders and Drury, 1992). Religion plays a big part in stress, suicide and depression as well many students who are religious may feel as if they need to maintain a certain moral. This has a lot to do with grades and social behavior. It can be hard being a college student and trying to keep up to standards of family and beliefs. I remember how much pressure I had in college because I went to a religious college and I was also on the work study program. It was very hard and stressful trying to cope with daily life on campus and I had to work hard to pay for my part of tuition. My mother was paying out of her pocket as well so the pressure was on me to do well and I was having a tough time. So you may feel as if you want to give up at times and you do go through depression but the suicide never crossed my mind, because my religion does not teach us that if something is hard end your life it teaches to try hard and love yourself unconditionally. A study of 459 students was done at a college in the United States Intrinsic religion was found to have a negative impact on the students. The suicide and depression rate was more that the researchers had suspected and further study was needed taking into consideration ethnic background, socioeconomics and age groups (Walker, R. L., & Bishop, S., 2005). In closing I think that family, religion, morals and how we are brought up as children decide who we will be as adults and how we will handle all of life situations. Stress should be dealt with early so no harm can come to the person or others. There have been many incidents where students have taken their life and others as well. With all of the resources out there should be no reason why life has to end prematurely each day.
References Altunta ş , (2003); Tutar, (2004); U ğ urlu, (2007). Stressors and Reactions to Stressors among University Students. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, pg 57(1), pg 69-80. Border. L.D., & Drury, S. M. (1992) Comprehensive school counseling programs: A review for policy makers and practitioners. Journal of counseling and development, pg 70, pg 487-498. Cull and Gill, (1992). Stressors and Reactions to Stressors among University Students. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, pg 57(1), pg 69-80. Durkheim, (1992); Oktik, Sezer, Bozyer, & Top, (2003). Stressors and Reactions to Stressors among University Students. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, pg 57(1), pg 69-80. Hamada, S. H. (2011). Stressors and Reactions to Stressors among University Students. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, pg 57(1), pg 69-80. Hass, A. P., Hendin H., and Mann, J. J. (2003). Suicide in college students. American behavioral science, pg 46, pg 1223-1240. Pehlivan, (2000). Stressors and Reactions to Stressors among University Students. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, pg 57(1), pg 69-80. Reference Selman, R. L. (1977). A structural development model of social cognition: Implication for intervention research. Counseling psychologist. Pg 6, pg 3-6. Strayhorn, S. M. (1988). The competent child: An approach to psychotherapy and preventive mental health. New York: Guilford. Walker, R. L., & Bishop, S. (2005). Examining a model of the relation between religiosity and suicidal ideation in a sample of African American and white college students. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, pg 35(6), pg 630-639. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/621079504?accountid=34899