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dscribtion on what is malaria

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    1. 2. MALARIA
    2. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Malaria is probably one of the oldest diseases known to mankind that has had profound impact on our history. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a huge social, economical and health problem, particularly in the tropical countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria is a vector -borne infectious disease caused by single-celled protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. </li></ul><ul><li>malaria is transmitted from person to person by the bite of female mosquitoes. </li></ul>
    3. 4. Anatomy <ul><li>It is divided into 3 parts – Head, Thorax, and Abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>A hard exoskeleton, 6 long joint legs, a pair of veined wings, straw like proboscis, and can only consume liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 2700 species of mosquitoes. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Anopheles gambiae bites she injects an anti-clotting agent (anticoagulant) into the prey to keep the victims blood flowing. </li></ul>
    4. 5. Anatomy - continued <ul><li>She locates victims by sight and smell and detecting heat. Not all mosquitoes bite humans. </li></ul><ul><li>  The malaria parasite is a single-celled protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium. There are 4 Plasmodium species that affect humans: </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium ovale Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium falciparum The most common species worldwide is Plasmodium falciparum, it is also the deadliest. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    5. 6. Life Cycle
    6. 7. Symptoms <ul><li>Cold stage: </li></ul><ul><li>fever </li></ul><ul><li>shaking </li></ul><ul><li>Chills </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Hot stage: </li></ul><ul><li>high fever </li></ul><ul><li>headache </li></ul><ul><li>nausea </li></ul><ul><li>vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>pain </li></ul><ul><li>delirium </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    7. 8. World
    8. 9. Treatment and Prevention <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>When people treat malaria, they use different types of drugs such as: </li></ul><ul><li>chloroquine </li></ul><ul><li>mefloquine </li></ul><ul><li>quinine </li></ul><ul><li>pyrimethamine </li></ul><ul><li>doxycycline </li></ul><ul><li>simptomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Some plasmodium have developed resistance to medications. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Methods used to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in areas where malaria is endemic, include: </li></ul><ul><li>prophylactic drugs, </li></ul><ul><li>mosquito eradication, and the prevention of mosquito bites. </li></ul><ul><li>There is currently no vaccine that will prevent malaria. Eliminating exposure to mosquitoes can be accomplished by several means. destroying bodies of stagnant water </li></ul><ul><li>treating such habitats with insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>fogging or spraying insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquito netting or protective clothing   </li></ul>
    9. 10. Economical Impact <ul><li>Malaria is a cause of poverty, not vice versa. </li></ul>Malaria imposes substantial costs to both individuals and governments. Costs to individuals and their families include: purchase of drugs for treating malaria at home; expenses for travel to, and treatment at, dispensaries and clinics; lost days of work; absence from school; expenses for preventive measures; expenses for burial in case of deaths. Costs to governments include: maintenance of health facilities; purchase of drugs and supplies; public health interventions against malaria, such as insecticide spraying or distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets; lost days of work with resulting loss of income; and lost opportunities for joint economic ventures and tourism. Such costs can add substantially to the economic burden of malaria on endemic countries and impede their economic growth. It has been estimated in a retrospective analysis that economic growth per year of countries with intensive malaria was 1.3% lower than that of countries without malaria.
    10. 11. Global Warming <ul><li>More provinces in South Africa including prosperous Gauteng where Johannesburg and Pretoria are located could become malaria zones by 2050 due to global warming </li></ul><ul><li>The number of South Africans &quot;at high risk&quot; of contracting malaria would quadruple by 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the life cycle of the mosquito that transmits malaria and the micro-organism that causes the disease are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature, some scientists have speculated that rising average temperatures may be making conditions more favorable for mosquitoes and pathogen development, leading in turn to the surge in malaria cases </li></ul>
    11. 12. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>