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Tolerance and Fits

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Fits & Tolerances
Tolerance Dimensioning
 Tolerance is the total amount that a specific
dimension is permitted to vary;
 It is the difference between the maximum and
the minimum limits for the dimension.
 For Example a dimension given as 1.625 ±
.002 means that the manufactured part may
be 1.627” or 1.623”, or anywhere between
these limit dimensions.
Tolerances
The Tolerance is 0.001” for the Hole as well as for the Shaft
Allowance & Clearance
Interchangeable Fit
Size Designations
Size Designations
 Nominal Size: It is the designation used for general
identification and is usually expressed in common
fractions. For Ex. In the previous figure, the nominal
size of both hole and shaft, which is 11/4” would be
1.25” in a decimal system of dimensioning.
 Basic Size or Basic dimension: It is the theoretical size
from which limits of size are derived by the application
of allowances and tolerances.
 Actual Size: is the measured size of the finished part.
 Allowance: is the minimum clearance space (or
maximum interference)intended between the maximum
material condition of mating parts.

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Tolerance and Fits

  • 2. Tolerance Dimensioning  Tolerance is the total amount that a specific dimension is permitted to vary;  It is the difference between the maximum and the minimum limits for the dimension.  For Example a dimension given as 1.625 ± .002 means that the manufactured part may be 1.627” or 1.623”, or anywhere between these limit dimensions.
  • 3. Tolerances The Tolerance is 0.001” for the Hole as well as for the Shaft
  • 6. Size Designations  Nominal Size: It is the designation used for general identification and is usually expressed in common fractions. For Ex. In the previous figure, the nominal size of both hole and shaft, which is 11/4” would be 1.25” in a decimal system of dimensioning.  Basic Size or Basic dimension: It is the theoretical size from which limits of size are derived by the application of allowances and tolerances.  Actual Size: is the measured size of the finished part.  Allowance: is the minimum clearance space (or maximum interference)intended between the maximum material condition of mating parts.
  • 7. Fits Between Mating Parts  Fit is the general term used to signify the range of tightness or looseness that may result from the application of a specific combination of allowances and tolerances in mating parts. There are four types of fits between parts 1. Clearance Fit: an internal member fits in an external member (as a shaft in a hole) and always leaves a space or clearance between the parts. Minimum air space is 0.002”. This is the allowance and is always positive in a clearance fit
  • 8. 2. Interference Fit: The internal member is larger than the external member such that there is always an actual interference of material. The smallest shaft is 1.2513” and the largest hole is 1.2506”, so that there is an actual interference of metal amounting to at least 0.0007”. Under maximum material conditions the interference would be 0.0019”. This interference is the allowance, and in an interference fit it is always negative.
  • 9. 3. Transition Fit: may result in either a clearance or interference condition. In the figure below, the smallest shaft 1.2503” will fit in the largest hole 1.2506”, with 0.003” to spare. But the largest shaft, 1.2509” will have to be forced into the smallest hole, 1.2500” with an interference of metal of 0.009”.
  • 10. 4. Line Fit: the limits of size are so specified that a clearance or surface contact may result when mating parts are assembled.
  • 11. Basic Hole System  Minimum hole is taken as the basic size, an allowance is assigned, and tolerances are applied on both sides of and away from this allowance. 1. The minimum size of the hole 0.500” is taken as the basic size. 2. An allowance of 0.002” is decided on and subtracted from the basic hole size, making the maximum shaft as 0.498”. 3. Tolerances of 0.002” and 0.003” respectively are applied to the hole and shaft to obtain the maximum hole of 0.502” and the minimum shaft of 0.495”. Minimum clearance: 0.500”- 0.498” = 0.002” Maximum clearance: 0.502” – 0.495” = 0.007”
  • 12. Basic Shaft System  Maximum shaft is taken as the basic size, an allowance is assigned, and tolerances are applied on both sides of and away from this allowance. 1. The maximum size of the shaft 0.500” is taken as the basic size. 2. An allowance of 0.002” is decided on and added to the basic shaft size, making the minimum hole as 0.502”. 3. Tolerances of 0.003” and 0.001” respectively are applied to the hole and shaft to obtain the maximum hole of 0.505” and the minimum shaft of 0.499”. Minimum clearance: 0.502”- 0.500” = 0.002” Maximum clearance: 0.505” – 0.499” = 0.006”
  • 13. Specifications of Tolerances 1. Limit Dimensioning The high limit is placed above the low limit. In single-line note form, the low limit precedes the high limit separated by a dash
  • 14. Specifications of Tolerances 2. Plus-or-minus Dimensioning • Unilateral Tolerance • Bilateral Tolerance
  • 16. Tolerances Related to Machining Processes
  • 17. Terms related to Metric Limits & Fits
  • 18. Some Definitions  Basic Size: is the size from which limits or deviations are assigned. Basic sizes, usually diameters, should be selected from a table of preferred sizes.  Deviation: is the difference between the basic size and the hole or shaft size.  Upper Deviation: is the difference between the basic size and the permitted maximum size of the part.  Lower Deviation: is the difference between the basic size and the minimum permitted size of the part.
  • 19. Some Definitions  Fundamental Deviation: is the deviation closest to the basic size.  Tolerance: is the difference between the permitted minimum and maximum sizes of a part.
  • 20.  International Tolerance Grade (IT): They are a set of tolerances that varies according to the basic size and provides a uniform level of accuracy within the grade.
  • 22. Definitions  Tolerance Zone: refers to the relationship of the tolerance to basic size. It is established by a combination of the fundamental deviation indicated by a letter and the IT grade number. In the dimension 50H8, for the close running fit, the H8 specifies the tolerance zone.  The hole-basis system of preferred fits is a system in which the basic diameter is the minimum size. For the generally preferred hole-basis system, the fundamental deviation is specified by the upper-case letter H.
  • 23.  The shaft-basis system of preferred fits is a system in which the basic diameter is the maximum size of the shaft. The fundamental deviation is given by the lowercase letter h.  An interference fit results in an interference between two mating parts under all tolerance conditions.
  • 24.  A transition fit results in either a clearance or an interference condition between two assembled parts.
  • 25.  Tolerance symbols are used to specify the tolerance and fits for mating parts. For the hole-basis system ,the 50 indicates the diameter in millimeters; the fundamental deviation for the hole is indicated by the capital letter H, and for the shaft it is indicated by the lowercase letter f. The numbers following the letters indicate this IT grade. Note that the symbols for the hole and shaft are separated by the slash. Tolerance symbols for a 50-mm-diameter hole may be given in several acceptable forms. The values in parentheses for reference only and may be omitted.
  • 27. Interchangeability  Interchangeable parts are parts (components) that are, for practical purposes, identical. They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any assembly of the same type. One such part can freely replace another, without any custom fitting (such as filing).  This interchangeability allows easy assembly of new devices, and easier repair of existing devices, while minimizing both the time and skill required of the person doing the assembly or repair.  Ford assembly line, 1913. The magneto was the first to be assembled.
  • 28.  The concept of interchangeability was crucial to the introduction of the assembly line at the beginning of the 20th century, and has become an important element of some modern manufacturing but is missing from other important industries.  Interchangeability of parts was achieved by combining a number of innovations and improvements in machining operations and the invention of several machine tools, such as the slide rest lathe, screw- cutting lathe, turret lathe, milling machine and metal planer.  Additional innovations included jigs for guiding the machine tools, fixtures for holding the workpiece in the proper position, and blocks and gauges to check the accuracy of the finished parts
  • 29. Selective Assembly  Selective assembly is an economic method to obtain perfect precision assemblies by using the components manufactured with wide tolerance specifications.  The mating component’s tolerances are divided into equal number of groups. The manufactured components are segregated according to these groups and the components from the corresponding groups are assembled interchangeably in the conventional method.  The required clearance can be achieved at this assembly method that is tighter than those achieved at the normal fabrication method with lowest total cost.
  • 30. Selective Assembly  Interchangeability relies on parts' dimensions falling within the tolerance range. The most common mode of assembly is to design and manufacture such that, as long as each part that reaches assembly is within tolerance, the mating of parts can be totally random.  There is another mode of assembly, called selective assembly, which gives up some of the randomness capability in trade-off for other value. There are two main areas of application that benefit economically from selective assembly:  when tolerance ranges are so tight that they cannot quite be held reliably (making the total randomness unavailable);  and when tolerance ranges can be reliably held, but the fit and finish of the final assembly is being maximized by voluntarily giving up some of the randomness (which makes it available but not ideally desirable).